By Barry Turnbull
& recycle it into Biodiesel at Liverpool John Lennon airport.
machine that will convert the breath of passengers into biofuel.
by travellers for recycling into fuel to be used in the airport’s diesel vehicles
and heating system.
near Warrington, has devised a technique to feed captured emissions to algae,
to produce a biomass cake that can be converted into green fuel.
Eco-box as a way of reducing carbon emissions from his own gas-guzzling Mitsubishi
have a significant impact on the way companies today can obtain fuel and manage
John Lennon Airport realise that mitigating an environmental impact and saving
money can go hand in hand.”
provide up to 250 litres of biofuel a day.
potentially generate as much as 3,000 litres of biofuel every day. The costs of
the trial have not been disclosed, but Origo claims the initial investment could
be repaid within a year.
together to create an on-site recycling process – something no-one else has done.
to reducing the environmental impact of air travel wherever practical,” said Andrew
Dutton, the airport’s head of environment.
and initiatives that could help to mitigate our environmental impact.
the right direction for the airport and the environment.”
plan: “This is an exciting first for Liverpool in the city’s year of the environment.
to see Liverpool John Lennon Airport taking a lead on this issue.”
it the centre of a rail network.
a local rail network linking it to 150 stations within a 25-mile radius.
on an opposition motion demanding a rethink of Heathrow’s expansion.
Our scheme takes all the existing and proposed lines around Heathrow and knits
with the existing rail network as well as take about one million cars off the
road every year.
of the cost of the Heathrow Hub scheme, favoured by ministers, as well as provide
greater benefits for local people.
as well as a new London to Scotland high speed rail line from Euston.
towards central London, and with proposed Crossrail services.
that the Government’s planned £4.5 railway hub was a “bad plan” costing a huge
amount of money but of benefit to very few passengers.
help Britain cope with climate change,” he said.
new railway lines as well as some extra terminal facilities at Heathrow.
scheme takes all the existing and proposed lines around Heathrow and knits them
impact of the airport would support.”
rail access if the roads around the airport are to cope.
impact of Heathrow expansion on their communities.
network could link major cities throughout the UK and provide direct routes to
for most domestic flights.
than four hours.
debate on alternatives to aviation growth.
Without radical improvements in public transport connections to the existing
airport, air quality problems can only get worse. Find out more about the 2M Group’s
proposals for improved local connections to Heathrow.
unless there are dramatic cuts in CO2 emissions, warn scientists.
Declaration”, which warns that changes in acidity are accelerating.
from an earlier international summit.
symposium, held in October 2008, the declaration states:
declare that we are deeply concerned by recent, rapid changes in ocean chemistry
and their potential, within decades, to severely affect marine organisms, food
webs, biodiversity and fisheries.”
not only dangerous climate change but also dangerous ocean acidification”.
CO2 problem”, could make most regions of the ocean inhospitable to coral reefs
by 2050, if atmospheric CO2 levels continue to increase.
threatening food security for millions of people.
on organisms appear unavoidable,” said Dr James Orr, chairman of the symposium.
Oceanographic Commission, outlined how the marine research community intended
to respond to the challenge.
results and to set priorities for research to improve our knowledge of the processes
and of the impacts of acidification on marine ecosystems.”
the world’s leaders would take the “necessary action” at a key UN climate summit
later this year.
political leaders meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009.”
Natural lab shows sea’s acid path
the atmosphere in the industrial age
7 is neutral
the 21st Century, adding to the present decrease of 0.1 units since pre-industrial
serve Southend Airport.
the best ways to go ahead with the scheme.
they plan to carry out major rail infrastructure work as soon as possible.
line, between Rochford and Prittlewell stations.
working out the full details on the railway station proposals. I’m hopeful we
will be able to make an official announcement on the subject within the next couple
this, including discussions with Network Rail and the train operator National
Express East Anglia.
the projected opening time, we will be making a formal announcement."
expansion of the airport, which it is estimated will cost in the region of £35million.
internal and abroad, together with a possible extension to the runway.
about the area surrounding the airport is expected to be published shortly.
and the health of the nation has suffered as a result”, said Ed Dearnley, Policy
Officer at Environmental Protection UK, “The failure to make hard decisions
and take meaningful action on existing air pollution obligations does not bode
well for meeting our new targets for emissions under the Climate Change Act3, which present a far greater challenge than the air pollution targets that we
have failed to meet”
into force during 2005, and missed an October 2008 deadline to submit an application
for a time extension for meeting the limits, as allowed under EU rules. This week
the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs began a consultation4 on the UK’s time extension application, in the hope that the Commission’s legal
action can be nipped in the bud.
main source is road vehicles, and measures that can be taken to tackle it include
Low Emission Zones (as seen in London) and large scale programmes to fit exhaust
filters to buses and heavy goods vehicles. Pro-active action on measures such
as these has largely been left to local authorities and as voluntary measures
in the UK, with central Government ruling out national schemes on cost grounds.
Environmental Protection UK is the environmental protection charity supported
by pollution control professionals. We have been working for a cleaner, quieter,
healthier world since 1898.
The European Commission has started infringement proceedings against 10 Member
States, including the UK, for failing to comply with the EU’s air quality standard
for PM10. The Commission’s action follows the entry into force last June of the new EU
air quality directive, which allows Member States to request, under certain conditions
and for specific parts of the country, limited extra time to meet the PM10 standard
in force since 2005. See the
EU Commission’s press release The Climate Change Act commits the UK to an 80% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 over 1990 levels. Achieving this target will take radical
action on transport, electricity generation and heat production far beyond the
measures taken to combat air pollution over past decades.
The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs began a consultation on
the UK’s draft time extension notification to the European Commission on the 27th
January. Their intention is to secure, for eight areas across the UK, an exemption
from the obligation to apply the limit values for particulate matter until 2011,
as provided for under the new Ambient Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC). The
consultation closes on the 10th March 2009, and the notification to the European
Commission is expected shortly afterwards. The European Commission’s deadline
for submitting a notification was the 31st October 2008. See
Details of the consultation
Brakes and tyres
PM10 emissions from tyres and brakes are dependent on many factors including aircraft
weight, number of wheels, brake material (carbon or steel) weather conditions,
engine type, pilot actions and airline procedures. However, combinations of these
dependencies are largely unknown and a more straightforward approach needs to
be adopted in order to predict these emissions from the Heathrow aircraft fleet.
has been gathered for a limited number of aircraft brake and tyre wear rates,
and assumptions were made on the percentage of the eroded material which becomes
suspended as PM10. For brakes, this data gives wear rates in terms of kg wear per landing for
F100/BAe146 and B737 aircraft. For tyres, BA have provided data for A319, A320,
A321, B747, B757, B767 and B777 aircraft. Assuming greater wear is proportional
to landing weight, 15 a relationship has been developed of the form:
Particulate matter The general picture is of a regional background PM10 concentration of 21-23 µg/m3,
which is enhanced by the airport to give a local background of around 25 µg/m3,
further enhanced close to the motorways to levels of 25-30 µg/m3 and to 27-31
µg/m3 on the airfield perimeter. The airport and local road thus make only a marginal
contribution to local concentrations compared with their contributions to NOX.
Analysis of the data suggests that sources on the airport are only contributing
around 1 µg/m3 to annual mean PM10 at the airfield perimeter.
around the world by aircraft, says an industry body.
in December, with a year-on-year fall of 22.6% in traffic.
on New York.
and 5% in freight cargo carried.
general Giovanni Bisignani.
S7 became the first airline to cancel an order for Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner.
traffic fell 4% compared with a 4.3% increase in 2007, the body said, its first
annual fall since 2001.
was only 13.9%,” said Mr Bisignani.
across Asia, North America and Europe.
What our industry needs is first and foremost a functioning financial system
industry revenues in 2009.
the industry from drowning in red ink.”
bail-out of the airline industry.
to sort out the banks.
Tom Enders told the BBC.
measures to help airlines to buy new aircraft.
an earlier estimate.
in global air cargo traffic.
and the International Air Transport Association said traffic volumes had fallen
by 22.6 per cent year-on-year in December.
of the slowdown in world trade. Even in September 2001 (after the 9/11 terrorist
attacks in the US), when much of the global fleet was grounded, the decline was
only 13.9 per cent."
drop was less dramatic than in cargo, as volumes had been supported by year-end
leisure travel that had been booked in advance.
and are flying with more empty seats. Capacity was reduced by 1.5 per cent year-on-year
in December, resulting in airlines filling only 73.8 per cent of available seats,
down from 76.2 per cent a year ago.
the industry from drowning in red ink," said Mr Bisignani.
£150m in the current financial year to the end of March, an announcement made
quarter from October to December.
the segment in which most network carriers generate the bulk of their profits,
had dropped sharply.
particularly in response to the turmoil in financial services.
by four per cent, and passenger volumes rose by 1.6 per cent, a significant slowdown
from the growth of 7.4 per cent achieved in 2007.
region, where it fell 9.7 per cent year-on-year. European carriers reported a
2.7 per cent fall in demand for international travel and North American carriers
a fall of 4.3 per cent.
international aviation. The 22.6 per cent drop in international cargo traffic
in December puts us in uncharted territory and the bottom is nowhere in sight."
a further loss of $2.5bn this year based on a forecast crude oil price of $60
a barrel, a 3 per cent fall in passenger volumes and a 5 per cent cent drop in
cargo traffic. Aviation industry revenues are forecast to fall this year by $35bn
consolidation in what remains a highly fragmented industry. Most countries still
allow foreign interests to hold only minority stakes in airlines.
Bisignani. "Almost every other business has the freedom to access global capital
and the ability to merge across borders, where it makes sense. To manage in this
crisis, airlines need the same management tools."
the Government’s climate change target, the Campaign for Better Transport says.
Heathrow and its controversial third runway would use two-thirds of British aviation’s
carbon ration by 2050 – the threshold at which Government has insisted emissions
from planes would have fallen to below 2005 levels.
Plymouth and Newquay airports would be hit as no other airports in the UK would
be able to expand.
from its current level of 1 million to 3.4 million by 2030.
Geoff Hoon had either “not done his sums properly” or was “so determined to expand
Heathrow that he is willing to cap capacity at every other airport to do it”.
airports were vital to the region, not just in terms of saving “slogging up to
Gatwick and Heathrow”, but supporting tourism and industry. He said: “I strongly
agree with this study, and I’m against Heathrow’s third runway for that reason.”
Newquay to expand. And my passion is to see regional airports expand.”
Exeter and Newquay. Its chief commercial officer, Mike Rutter, said taxing older
polluting aircraft would be a better way of addressing environmental concerns
than “unnecessarily discouraging or inhibiting airport expansion in the UK regions”.
He added: “Flybe believes that regional aviation cannot be constrained to allow
expansion in London.”
expansion. Ministers are facing a major Labour revolt over the plans, with the
Government’s majority slashed to just 19 last night as two Labour MPs resigned
in protest and Labour backbenchers joined the Opposition in blasting plans.
Bush) stepped down as an aide to Foreign Office minister Lord Malloch-Brown to
campaign against the plan. Shortly after the vote, Virendra Sharma, Labour MP
for Ealing Southall, quit as Private Parliamentary Secretary to Home Office Minister
Mr Hoon announced there would be a limit on the amount of carbon dioxide the aviation
industry could blast out. Emissions from British aviation would have to be pegged to below 2005 levels
– 37.5 million tonnes – by 2050, he said.
that emissions would rise to 59.9 million tonnes in 2050, even taking into consideration steady improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency.
The forecast assumes that annual passenger numbers more than double from 228 million
in 2005 to 525 million by 2050.
growing in 2030 – and its emissions stabilised – all other airports in Britain
would have to cut their combined emissions by a third by 2050 to comply with the
passenger numbers from 350,000 to around 1.43 million in 2030. Meanwhile, an independent
analysis of Plymouth City Airport shows it could still push passenger numbers
up from about 80,000 to 520,000 a year by 2020 without a runway extension. A spokesman
said year-round regional air services were “a lifeline for areas like the far
South West, where road and rail links are relatively poor”.
away, and it will be up to the Government of the day to decide how to achieve
the right balance between international services and regional air links when setting
add a further £160 million to the regional economy over the next two decades,
pointed to improvements in aircraft efficiency as pioneered by Flybe’s Bombardier
Commons vote. This is not over by a long, long way.
put down for their motion the verbatim text of an early day motion calling for
a rethink on the
including 57 Labour MPs. If all the Tories and Liberal Democrats and smaller parties
had held firm and all the Labour signatories had voted in accordance with the
early day motion they had signed, the government would have been defeated. But
none of these things happened, and the government won by 19 votes.
or even supported the government. Some members of the smaller parties were either
absent or, coming from the more distant parts of the UK, wanted to see Heathrow
facilities expanded. Several Labour members would not vote for a Tory motion that
they saw as opportunistic. In the end,
original Heathrow consultation document was widely seen as flawed, with greatly
exaggerated claims about the business advantages of the third runway and the number
of jobs likely to be created, and with figures on the environmental impacts re-engineered
to fit the EU pollution limits. The government effectively took the decision to
go ahead years ago, and the consultation just gave useful procedural cover. Parliament
was denied a vote by the government on the grounds that planning decisions were
not a matter for parliament, even though Heathrow expansion is a matter of unique
national strategic importance. When finally a vote was secured via an opposition-led
debate, all the usual inter-party shenanigans kicked in, with heavy whipping on
the government side to warn off waverers from supporting a “Tory” motion. The
government overwhelmingly lost the argument in the debate, but through its activities
outside the chamber won the vote.
high-speed rail line to the north instead, but there are divisions within their
ranks that make a Tory government’s stance uncertain. An alternative site for
a new airport in the
could still intervene to halt the runway if
And under the recently passed new Planning Act the final decision to go ahead
awaits the formation of a new infrastructure planning commission, which has not
yet been appointed and will be guided by a new national policy statement on aviation
which has not yet been written.
rebellion among Labour MPs last night over his decision to approve a third runway
and sixth terminal at Heathrow Airport. The Government narrowly won a vote on
the third runway forced by the Conservative Party, although its majority was cut
by two-thirds to just 19 after 28 Labour MPs rebelled.
the decision to approve the expansion. Mr Sharma, the MP for Ealing Southall
in west London, said his constituents fiercely opposed the proposals.
to resign, but I had no option. The Government’s decision to expand Heathrow will
seriously affect many of my constituents, and my first priority is to represent
Government aide who resigned on Tuesday, said expanding Heathrow would have a
devastating impact on the quality of life in west London. The size of the rebellion
confirmed fears of Mr Brown’s aides, who said the result would be “closer than
previously reported” in the run-up to the vote. A defeat would have had no effect
on the decision to build the runway, but the small margin of victory will be embarrassing
for the Government and the Prime Minister, who supports the expansion.
showed that supporting the third runway was “political suicide” for Labour MPs
in constituencies near Heathrow. “This is the largest Labour rebellion on an opposition
motion since the party took power in 1997, and will have alarm bells ringing in
No.10. Gordon Brown has got a problem on his hands here,” he said.
Government concessions on air quality, noise and carbon targets together with
its abandonment of an immediate increase in flights on the two existing runways
meant enough Labour MPs changed their minds to help the Government win the vote.
have led calls for their party to change its position, ensured they were not in
the chamber for last night’s vote. The Government faced fierce criticisms from
within its own party over the expansion during the four-and-a-half hour debate.
said the project would cause “more gridlock, more pollution, more nitrogen dioxide,
and more asthma for young people”.
with the aviation industry had become “far too cosy”.
Government of being “muddle-headed and wrong”. He predicted problems and opposition
to the new runway meant it was already “dead in the water”.
would not rule out expanding airports in the south-east, despite opposing the
scheduled traffic results for both December 2008 and the full-year.
compared to December 2007. The same comparison for international passenger traffic
showed a 4.6% drop. The international load factor stood at 73.8%.
traffic showed a modest increase of 1.6%, and the international load factor stood
no clearer description of the slowdown in world trade. Even in September 2001,
when much of the global fleet was grounded, the decline was only 13.9%," said
Giovanni Bisignani, IATA’s Director General and CEO." Air cargo carries 35% of
the value of goods traded internationally.
passenger demand was less dramatic than the fall in cargo. A 1.5% cutback in supply
could not keep pace with falling demand, resulting in a 2.4% decline in the December
load factor to 73.8%. "Airlines are struggling to match capacity with fast-falling
demand. Until this comes into balance, even the sharp fall in fuel prices cannot
save the industry from drowning in red ink," said Bisignani.
said Bisignani. For November, IATA reported an 11.5% drop in the number of premium
tickets issued globally.
Passenger Traffic Full-year traffic results show a 1.6% increase in demand which is dramatically down from the 7.4% recorded
in 2007. Capacity grew by 3.5% resulting in a full-year average load factor of
75.9% (down from the 77.3% recorded for 2007)
Following is a regional summary for December traffic: Asia Pacific carriers saw the sharpest decline in December international traffic at 9.7%.
They also registered the sharpest reduction in capacity, but at 5.6%, this is
lagging behind the drop in demand. Load factors sank to 72.6%. The economic turmoil
in the region is widespread. December export volumes fell 20% for Singapore and
35% for Japan. Korean GDP showed a 5.5% contraction. While China’s economy continues
to grow, recently released GDP figures show that it is at a much lower pace. As
a result, traffic in the region continues to be the hardest hit.
European carriers saw demand for international travel fall by 2.7% while capacity declined
by 1.5%. Load factors stood at the global average of 73.8%. With business confidence
indicators pointing to a 10% decline in industrial production and a 20% fall in
trade, there is little reason for optimism.
North American airlines saw December demand drop by 4.3%, far outstripping the 0.7% cut in
international capacity. While North American carriers had made early cuts in domestic
capacity of about 10%, this is the first month registering a cut in international
operations. Nonetheless, the region recorded the highest load factor at 78.1%.
African carriers continued to see their traffic fall, despite more robust economies
and travel to the continent than other regions. International passenger traffic
declined 4.6% in December. The 2.1% reduction in capacity left load factors at
68.5%, the lowest among the regions.
Latin American airlines recorded a 1.1% increase in December demand and a 3.2% increase in
capacity. With North American commodities demand and trade falling so sharply,
the months ahead are likely to be more difficult for airlines in this region.
Carriers in the Middle East showed a 3.9% increase in demand in December, far below the 10% capacity increase.
The region’s carriers ended five years of double-digit growth with full-year demand
growing by 7.0% (compared to 18.1% recorded for 2007). Growth will continue to
slow in 2009 as oil revenues and long-haul hub connection traffic are now both
Freight Traffic Full year international air freight traffic contracted 4.0% for the year compared to 4.3% growth in 2007. December saw an unprecedented 22.6% decline in air freight volumes, compared with the
previous year. All regions showed major declines.
The collapse in the airline industry’s freight business is a reflection of 20-30%
declines in export and import volumes being reported across Asia, North America
and Europe as the global recession plumbs new depths in December.
Asia-Pacific carriers, accounting for 45% of international cargo, led the December decline
with a 26.0% contraction compared to the previous year. Latin American carriers saw cargo drop 23.7%; North American carriers 22.2% and European carriers 21.2%. Single-digit declines were recorded by Middle Eastern carriers (-9.2%) and African carriers (-8.0%)
The 22.6% drop in international cargo traffic in December puts us in un-charted
territory and the bottom is nowhere in sight. Keep your seatbelts fastened and
prepare for a bumpy ride and a hard landing," said Bisignani.
a further loss of US$2.5 billion based on a fuel price of US$60 per barrel, a
decline of 3.0% in passenger volumes, a drop of 5.0% in cargo traffic and yield
deterioration of 3.0%. Industry revenues are expected to contract by US$35 billion
(from US$536 billion in 2008 to US$501 billion in 2009).
to the industry. "We don’t want bail-outs. But we need to change the ownership
rules. Almost every other business has the freedom to access to global capital
and the ability to merge across borders where it makes sense. To manage in this
crisis, airlines need the same management tools," said Bisignani.