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Green campaigners condemn Thomson Airways’ biofuels flight

The UK’s first commercial flight to be powered by biofuels headed off to the
Canary Islands and a storm of controversy. The flight from Birmingham had one
engine running on a mixture of 50% standard fuel and 50% biofuel made from waste
cooking oil. Environmental campaigners said the pilot project was a gimmick that
would end up harming the environment. FoE said biofuels won’t make flying any
greener, but their production is wrecking rainforests, pushing up food prices
and causing yet more climate-changing emissions
.

also   6.10.2011

UK first as Thomson Airways’ three-year biofuel commercial flight programme finally
takes off
(GreenAir online)

also   6.10.2011

Thomson Airways’ test biofuels flight from Birmingham to Lanzarote is a hollow
PR stunt

(Friends of the Earth)

also

Thomson Airways under fire for “greenwash” after biofuel flight   (Click Green)

Biofuelwatch and AirportWatch comment

Comment on Thomson flight

SkyNRG response to AirportWatch comment

Response from SkyNRG

 

Green campaigners condemn Thomson Airways’ biofuels flight

Service to the Canary Islands that will be powered partly by waste from cooking
oil is criticised as ‘hollow PR stunt’

  •  

     

    see also

     

     

    Thomson Airways’ test biofuels flight from Birmingham to Lanzarote is a hollow
    PR stunt

    Date Added: 6th October 2011

    Thomson Airways’ test biofuels flight from Birmingham to Lanzarote is a hollow
    PR stunt that paves the way for rainforest destruction. Thomson today launches
    the 1st UK commercial flight run on biofuels. The biofuels Thomson will now use
    include virgin plant oil from the US and babassu nuts from Brazil. Both are in
    short supply so Thomson is likely to use unsustainable alternatives. Their publicity
    aims to persuade the travelling public and government, erroneously, that these
    biofuel flights produce less CO2 and are “greener” than usual.

    Click here to view full story…

     

     

  • Posted: Thursday, October 6th, 2011. Filed in Biofuels News.

    Read more »

    Thomson Airways’ test biofuels flight from Birmingham to Lanzarote is a hollow PR stunt

    THOMSON LAUNCHES BIOFUEL FLIGHTS – FRIENDS OF THE EARTH REACTION

    6.10.2011  (Friends of the Earth press release)
    Thomson Airways’ test biofuels flight from Birmingham to Lanzarote is a hollow
    PR stunt that paves the way for rainforest destruction, Friends of the Earth warns
    today as the company launches the first UK commercial flight run on biofuels.
    Thomson had originally planned to launch a test flight at the end of July running
    on used cooking oil, but the company was unable to source enough fuel in time
    and had to postpone. Friends of the Earth says it would take the average person
    about a hundred years to save up enough chip fat to fly from Birmingham to Lanzarote
    on a one-way flight.
    The biofuels Thomson will now use include virgin plant oil from the US and babassu
    nuts from Brazil. Both are in very short supply, and the charity is concerned
    the company will use unsustainable alternatives when it launches daily biofuel
    flights next year. Thomson’s parent company TUI is already looking into soya and
    palm oil for its Thomson Airways fleet – and these are known drivers of rainforest
    deforestation.
    Research has shown that biofuels from crops could be causing more climate-changing
    emissions than they save. Friends of the Earth is calling on the Government to
    halt airport expansion and develop greener alternatives to flying such as better
    rail services to replace short-haul flights.
    Friends of the Earth’s biofuels campaigner Kenneth Richter said:
    “Biofuels won’t make flying any greener – their production is wrecking rainforests,
    pushing up food prices and causing yet more climate-changing emissions.
    “It’s not surprising Thomson couldn’t find enough used cooking oil to fly to
    Lanzarote – it would take about a hundred years for each passenger to save up
    enough chip fat.
    “The Government must curb future demand for flights by halting airport expansion,
    promoting video conferencing, and developing faster, better and affordable rail
    services.”
    ENDS
    Notes to editor
     
      1.  More information about today’s flight can be found on Thomson’s website:
    http://www.thomson.co.uk/editorial/faqs/flights/thomson-airways-biofuel-initiative.html


      2.  TUI’s Position paper on the introduction of biofuels into the Thomson Airways
    fleet: www.aef.org.uk/downloads/TUI_(Thomson)_Aviation_Biofuels_Briefing_Paper%20Sept%202011.pdf 

      3.  Calculation workings: In the UK about 1.6 litres of collectable waste cooking
    oil are produced per person per year. When collected and turned into fuel that
    volume is reduced to approx. 1 litre of biofuel per person per year due to filtering,
    cleaning and processing. A flight from Birmingham to Arrecife uses about 100 litres
    of aviation fuel per passenger. Therefore Friends of the Earth calculates that
    one person would have to save chip fat for about 100 years before they had enough
    to fly themself on a one way flight.

    4.    A study by the Institute for European Environmental Policy this year found
    that biofuels could be causing more climate-changing emissions than they save:
    http://www.ieep.eu/assets/786/Analysis_of_ILUC_Based_on_the_National_Renewable_Energy_Action_Plans.pdf
     

     5.  Friends of the Earth recently slammed plans by the European aviation industry
    to fuel its planes with two million tonnes of biofuels by 2020 http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/press_releases/aviation_biofuels_target_22062011.html
     
    A Friends of the Earth Europe briefing ‘Flying in the Face of Facts: Greenwashing
    the aviation industry with biofuels’ reveals the likely environmental impacts
    of this target.

    http://www.foeeurope.org/publications/2011/FoEE_Flying_in_the_face_of_facts_June2011.pdf
     

    6.  Friends of the Earth believes the environment is for everyone. We want a
    healthy planet and a good quality of life for all those who live on it. We inspire
    people to act together for a thriving environment. More than 90 per cent of our
    income comes from individuals so we rely on donations to continue our vital work.
    For further information visit www.foe.co.ukhttp://www.foe.co.uk

    .
    Also  AirportWatch & Biofuelwatch comment below

     
     
    compared to the sort of hype that the aviation industry wants for its PR stunt:

     

    Chips away: Britain’s first bio-fuel passenger flight is scheduled for take off
    tomorrow

    5.10.2011 (Daily Mail)

    Thomson plane


    You might have think that cooking oil is good for nothing more than frying chips.

    But Thomson Airways has found a whole new use for it – and is set to fly customers
    from Birmingham to Arrecife tomorrow, on a mixture of waste fat and jet fuel.

    This supposedly more eco-friendly service was set to take flight last July, but
    has seen delays over testing processes and safety clearance.

    Thomson claims the eco-friendly biofuel has the potential to reduce aviation
    emissions by up to 80 per cent in the future, and plans to use biofuel across
    its whole fleet within the next three years.

    Thomson Airways managing director Chris Browne says:

    ‘Sustainable biofuels offer us the opportunity to improve our own individual
    environmental performance as well as contributing to the UK’s carbon reduction
    target.’

    Aviation minister Theresa Villiers echoes his sentiment, saying: ‘The British
    government believes that sustainable biofuels have a role to play in efforts to
    tackle climate change, particularly in sectors where no other viable low carbon
    energy source has been identified – as is the case with aviation.’

    The aircraft will run on a 50-50 mix of Jet A1 fuel and Hydroprocessed Esters
    and Fatty Acids (HEFA) fuel made from used cooking oil.

    Sustainable biofuel costs significantly more than regular jet fuel  – a stumbling
    block that is preventing it from currently being widely used in the aviation industry
    – but Thomson owners Tui Travel hope it will help them to reduce carbon emissions
    by 6% from 2008 to 2014.

    Thomson has also pointed out that using biofuel can create work for people in
    developing countries, stating: ‘There are many different potential plant and waste
    sources for sustainable aviation biofuel, meaning that it can be grown in locations
    almost worldwide, and can therefore create work and income for people in developing
    countries.’

    And nervous flyers should not worry. Thomson promises the ride will be ’a normal
    flight for you, just one that’s lighter on the environment’.

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/article-2045483/UKs-biofuel-passenger-flight-takes-tomorrow.html?ITO=1490

     

     

    and
     
     
    comment from Biofuelwatch and AirportWatch

    Thomson’s inaugural biofuel flight condemned as self-seeking and irresponsible
    greenwash

    - biojet flight sparks controversy as airline pleads for a bail-out on fuel costs


    Aviation and biofuel campaigners have condemned Thomson Airways’ commercial UK
    biofuel flights, scheduled to begin on Thursday, 6th October, as dangerous greenwash. 
    Thomson are the first company to launch

    commercial flights with biofuel blends in the UK.

    Thomson’s parent company, the TUI Group, is giving the strong impression that
    these biofuel flights are “green”. Their publicity aims to persuade the travelling
    public, and the government, that these biofuel flights produce lower carbon emissions,
    and are part of a real effort by the company to produce less environmental damage.

    Their ‘biojet’ launch comes despite growing awareness of the serious negative
    impact which Europe’s demand for biofuels already has on forests and climate change,
    and mounting evidence that biofuel production raises

    food prices, causes hunger and triggers land-grabbing in the Global South.

    Thomson is also using these flights as part of a concerted lobby effort to win
    more state support and subsidies for aviation, this time to pay for biofuels (1).
    Seeking a way to boost their profits, airlines must view state aid that helps
    protect against fuel cost rises an attractive prize, particularly when it can
    be dressed up as climate-friendly.

    Thomson originally planned to launch biofuel flights on 28th July, mixing only
    biofuels from Used Cooking Oil and tallow with kerosene, but had to delay those
    plans because they could not source enough used chip fat.  They have now conceded
    that they will have to also use virgin plant oil, initially from camelina from
    North America and babassu nuts from Brazil, refined in Louisiana.  Biofuels from
    camelina and babassu palm nuts are both in very short supply, with camelina yields
    being low and unreliable (2). 

     
    The company that is refining Thomson’s biofuels states on their website that
    they are looking at soya and palm oil as ‘suitable’ future feedstocks (3). Both
    are key drivers of tropical deforestation. as well as driving up food prices.

    Industrial biofuel production from babassu is aggravating long-standing social
    and land-conflicts in Brazil, where up to 400,000 women and their families depend
    on traditional babassu harvesting and media reports have warned that energy companies
    are curtailing the families’ access to the trees, thus threatening their livelihoods
    (4).

    Sarah Clayton from AirportWatch states: “Thomson Airways are using spurious claims
    about the merits of ‘sustainable biofuels’ to try and get the Government to grant
    yet more financial support and preferential

    treatment for the aviation industry.  There is nothing sustainable about competing
    with other biofuel markets for the obviously limited supplies of used cooking
    oil and tallow. This merely means that others, finding

    increased competition for supplies, will then simply use more palm and soya oil
    instead, thus causing more forests to be destroyed.  And there is nothing sustainable
    about worsening existing land conflicts in Brazil so

    that companies like Thomson can keep expanding.”

    Rob Palgrave from Biofuelwatch adds: “The word ‘sustainability’ has been used
    by virtually every sector and every company investing in all types of biofuels,
    regardless of the effects on people, climate and the environment.  Thomson Airways
    are pushing for more government support for biofuel just weeks after a report
    published by the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation has confirmed the major
    role which biofuels are playing in food price rises and thus the growing number
    of people going hungry worldwide and called for an end to biofuel support across
    Europe and North America.”

    In July 2011, the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition
    of the FAO Committee on World Food Security confirmed that biofuels have played
    a significant role in the food price spike of 2007-2009 as well as in the current
    food price rises (5).

    Last month, the Scientific Committee of the European Environment Agency challenged
    the EC to correct the accounting anomaly that means biofuels’ greenhouse gas emissions
    are being under-estimated, saying the current methodology is based on an false
    assumption involving double counting of carbon savings “and results in a serious
    accounting error” (6)

    The Thomson flight comes shortly after NOAA data (7) show that globally, August
    2011 had the second hottest land temperatures of any August since records began,
    and 2010 had the joint warmest combined land and sea

    temperatures, equal to 2005. The industry and government recognise that aviation’s
    greenhouse gas emissions need to be substantially cut, but a misguided, misinformed
    and damaging dash for biofuel is not the answer.

    The only way for aviation to sustainably cut greenhouse gases is to reduce flying.

    Notes:

    (1). For a copy of TUI’s Position paper on the introduction of biofuels

    into the Thomson Airways fleet, see

    www.aef.org.uk/downloads/TUI_(Thomson)_Aviation_Biofuels_Briefing_Paper%20Sept%202011.pdf

    The paper states that amongst the objectives of the company’s biofuel

    project are: “To engage with the UK Government & EU Institutions to ensure

    (a) The co-development of a policy framework incentivising adoption of an

    aviation biojet infrastructure; (b) the roll out of effective incentives

    e.g. research and development funding, loan guarantees or other fiscal

    measures; (c) the development and negotiation of co-funding opportunities

    with key stakeholders to enable an increase in volume commitment in the

    longer term.”

    (2). Camelina is an oilseed crop which is currently grown on only a small

    scale in North America.  According to US Government figures, the average

    yield for camelina in 2010 was 1029 lbs/acre, which is 1.15 tonnes/hectare

    www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Montana/Publications/Press_Releases_Crops/camelina.pdf

    By comparison, average rapeseed oils yields are 3 tonnes/hectare.

    (3). See: http://dynamicfuelsllc.com/wp-news/frequently-ask-questions/.

    The biofuels which Thomson Airways intend to use are sourced via a Dutch

    commercial partnership, SkyNRG but refined in Louisiana by Dynamic Fuels

    LLC.

    (4). http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=104818 .  Note that Tecbio, the

    biofuel company referred to in the article, has signed a cooperation

    agreement with Boeing who are partners in Thomson Airways’ biofuel project

    and are thus the likely suppliers of the babassu nut oil.

    (5). See:

    www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/hlpe/hlpe_documents/HLPE-price-volatility-and-food-security-report-July-2011.pdf

    (6). http://www.eea.europa.eu/about-us/governance/scientific-committee/sc-opinions/opinions-on-scientific-issues/sc-opinion-on-greenhouse-gas

    (7).  NOAA   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/

    * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
    * * * * * * * * *
    And then response by Sky NRG to the AirportWatch comment:
     
     
     
    SkyNRG reaction to AirportWatch/Biofuelwatch statement

    Air travel has become an integral part of everyday life. There will be air travel,
    now and in the future, as it fulfills an important social function in today’s
    global society. The aviation industry acknowledges the urgency for emission reduction
    and they also know there is a need to switch to alternative, renewable resources
    as fossil fuels are depleting. Demand side reduction is a very effective way to
    reduce fuel consumption and related green house gas emissions. But it does not
    offer a complete solution to aviation related emissions, let alone energy security.
    In addressing the challenge to replace fossil kerosene in a sustainable way, aviation
    has no alternative but liquid hydrocarbons from bio-based (waste) sources.

    We share the concerns of NGOs (and other stakeholders) when it comes to bio-energy
    resources. We believe in the notion that
    the impact of bioenergy on social and environmental issues may be positive or
    negative depending on local conditions and the design and implementation of specific
    projects
    (SRREN, 2011). When done in the wrong way biomass and biofuel production systems
    can have a variety of negative impacts on eco- and social systems. Greenhouse
    gas emissions are just part of the problem. On the other side, well managed projects
    can have a profoundly positive effect on ecosystems and social systems alike and
    can include: enhanced biodiversity, soil carbon increases and improved soil productivity,
    significant greenhouse reductions, less dependency on fossil energy sources, reduced
    erosion (top soil and nutrient run off) effects, stimulation of local employment
    and strengthening of local, regional and national economies.

    SkyNRG focuses on this positive side of biofuel development. To make the right
    decisions now and in the future, SkyNRG is advised by an independent Sustainability
    Board, consisting of the Dutch wing of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-NL),
    Solidaridad, and the Copernicus Institute of the University of Utrecht. SkyNRG
    recognizes to be in a transition; the best choices today are likely to be replaced
    by improved choices in the near future. We have chosen to start with Used Cooking
    Oil, a waste stream, as main feedstock. We know the available volumes are limited
    and that it can never replace total fossil kerosene consumption. And neither can
    vegetable oils. We see current options as a first step in the right direction
    and we are exploring and supporting future alternatives both in feedstock and
    technology.

    First steps are critical to get things going. The first launching flights, made
    by carriers that are stepping up to make the difference, are essential to engage
    industry, governments, customers and other stakeholders. We welcome Thomson Airways
    to join us on the road towards a sustainable future for aviation
    ” – Dirk Kronemeijer, MD SkyNRG

    On SkyNRG

    SkyNRG is a joint venture of KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, North Sea Group and Spring
    Associates. SkyNRG’s mission is to help create a sustainable future for aviation
    through actively developing a sustainable production chain for alternative aviation
    fuels. Today the market for these fuels is just emerging; SkyNRG is taking the
    first steps to make it a reality. Doing nothing is not an option.

    —————————————-
    Note: Some of the claims made by AirportWatch and BiofuelsWatch are inaccurate. The article
    wrongly states that: “The company that is refining Thomson’s Biofuels states on
    their website that they are looking for Palm and Soya as suitable feedstock. This
    is not the case, the plant merely has the technical capability to process different
    types vegetable oils, hence the statement. Today the plant is running on waste
    oils only and has no intention to switch.
     
    * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
    * * * * * * * * *
     
    see also earlier:
     
     

    Brussels slammed for bad science on biofuels

    Date Added: 1st October 2011

    Environmental NGOs have written to the EC President, José Manuel Barroso, demanding
    action on 5 scientific studies that question the energy benefits of biofuels,
    as a row over a land use report by the EU’s scientific advisors escalates. The
    best avialable science was dismissed by the EU. The 5 world-class studies for
    the EU all agree the Indirect Land Use Change effects of biofuels “could not only
    negate the expected carbon savings, but even lead to an increase in emissions.”

    Click here to view full story…



     

     

     

     

    Out of the Deep Fat Fryer … Thomson Airways and its first biofuel flight

    Date Added: 30th September 2011

    With Thomson Airways re-launching their attempts to get regular biofuels flights
    from Birmingham Airport, green campaigners are raising concerns that new “Sustainable
    Aviation Biofuels” are actually likely to be more damaging for the environment.
    After dropping plans to fuel flights with used cooking oil due to insufficient
    supply, Thomson are now going to be using virgin plant oil from a number of sources,
    none of which should properly be classified as sustainable.

    Click here to view full story…



     

     

    Thomson Airways plans its biofuel flight on 6th October, using a mix of oils
    as sufficient used cooking oil was not available

    Date Added: 29th September 2011

    Thomson will be flying its delayed first biofuel flight on 6th Oct from Birmingham
    to Arrecife. It was delayed from 28th July when supplies of used cooking oil could
    not be obtained in time. Thomson has put out a position paper on biofuels. Like
    other airlines, is getting a test flight with biofuels, hoping to persuade its
    customers and government that it is being “green” and environmentally responsible.
    Thomson hopes to have a daily flight using biofuel.

    Click here to view full story…

     


     

     

    Posted: Thursday, October 6th, 2011. Filed in Biofuels News.

    Read more »

    Brussels slammed for bad science on biofuels

    Environmental NGOs have written to the EC President, José Manuel Barroso, demanding
    action on 5 scientific studies that question the energy benefits of biofuels,
    as a row over a land use report by the EU’s scientific advisors escalates. The
    best avialable science was dismissed by the EU. The 5 world-class studies for
    the EU all agree the Indirect Land Use Change effects of biofuels “could not only
    negate the expected carbon savings, but even lead to an increase in emissions.”


    28.9.2011  (EurActiv)

    Several environmental NGOs have written to the European Commission President,
    José Manuel Barroso, demanding action on five scientific studies that question
    the clean energy benefits of biofuels, as a row over a land use report by the
    EU’s scientific advisors escalates.

    “We are writing to seek assurance that the Commission is giving due consideration
    to science in its energy policy, after several instances in which the best available
    science was dismissed,”
    the letter says.

    In September 2009, Barroso made a speech calling for “a fundamental review of the way European institutions access and
    use scientific advice”.

    But the letter cites five world-class studies for the EU which, it says, all
    agree that the Indirect Land Use Change (
    ILUC) effects of biofuels “could not only negate the expected carbon savings, but
    even lead to an increase in emissions.”

    The most recent, a report by the scientific committee of the European Environment Agency (EEA) slammed the official EU policy that biofuels are ‘carbon neutral’ as a
    “serious accounting error” with “immense” potential consequences.

    The 19 scientists on the panel decided that it neglected the fact that other carbon-absorbing plants would have grown
    on fertile land used by the biofuels, so any carbon absorption from the biofuels
    themselves was being “double-counted”.

    The letter’s signatories include ActionAid, Birdlife, ClientEarth, European Environmental
    Bureau, Oxfam, Transport and Environment and Wetlands International.

    “I can only rejoice that these seven NGO’s have done that [sent the letter],”
    Dr Pierre Laconte, the vice-chair of the EEA panel responsible for the report
    told EurActiv.

    A spokesperson for Mr Barroso would only say that “the president has received
    the letter and there will be an answer in due time.”

    The missive was prompted by a statement from an EU spokesperson on September 14th that research by the acclaimed Princeton scholar Tim Searchinger
    which underpinned the EEA’s report, “seems not to be an actual good contribution
    to the debate” and had been “rebutted by other institutions.”

    “We have used Tim Searchinger’s work and we invited him to address us – as we
    did industry people,” Dr Detlef Sprinz, the chairman of the EEA panel, told EurActiv.
    “I find his work rather important,” he added. “It has been published in some of
    the best journals that we have.”

    Contested science

    The science involved in the report is of crucial importance. On Page 8, the EEA
    report cites the IEA as saying that biofuels could provide 20% of the world’s
    energy by 2050, and the UNFCCC claiming that bioenergy could supply 800 exajoules
    of energy per year (EJ/yr).

    But today’s entire global cultivatable land for food, feed, fibre and wood only
    has a chemical energy value of 230 (EJ/yr), just over a quarter of that figure.

    The implication, says Dr Laconte, could be a complete collapse of the world’s
    rural economies, as they are displaced by carbon-emitting feedstock-based biofuels.

    “Agriculture could be wiped out and therefore the food it produces, leading to
    a problem of food scarcity,” he said.

    The problem was one of “decisions on biofuels that have been taken, which are
    not easy to change and which have huge consequences.”

    “People have praised a method of saving emissions which has proved not to be
    true,” he said.  

    Since 2008, EU member states have been obliged to raise the share of biofuels in the transport energy mix to 10% by 2020.

    But because this can count towards their separate target of a 20% share for renewables
    in the overall energy mix by 2020, the EU says that biofuels will ultimately account
    for 2.5% of overall energy, or an eighth of the total.

    Environmentalists cite an EEA report to argue that the figure would be even higher if it counted, for example, the
    annual 4.4 million tonnes of bioliquids for heating that can make up member states’
    renewable targets. These can be provided by feedstock-based biofuels such as palm
    oil.

    Asked by EurActiv whether the EU’s 20% renewables target was legitimate and could
    be trusted, Tim Searchinger, the scientist at the heart of the row, replied: “No,
    absolutely not.”

    “The EU energy targets calls for a little bit more than half of all the targets
    to be met by bioenergy,” he said. “You could do that by chopping down your forests
    and putting them in a [biomass] power plant, or turning the Amazon into a parking
    lot for wood pellets.”

    Forests in America were already being chopped down for such wood pellet fuel
    for the EU, according to Searchinger.

    “It’s wrong, and everybody knows it,” he said. “Carbon accumulating forests absorb
    a third or more of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions – on a gross basis. If
    you just get rid of that sink its doing as much to increase global warming as
    increasing your [fuel] source.”

    Arthur Neslen

    http://www.euractiv.com/climate-environment/brussels-slammed-bad-science-biofuels-news-507897

    Posted: Saturday, October 1st, 2011. Filed in Biofuels News.

    Read more »

    US Air Force to buy 11,000 gallons of alcohol-to-jet fuel from GEVO

    A US company called GEVO in Silsbee, Texas, is converting alcohol (made from
    wheat) to isobutanol, and then converting this into alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) fuel.
    It will provide the USAF with  up to 11,000 gallons of ‘alcohol-to-jet’ (ATJ)
    fuel, which will be used to support engine testing and a feasibility flight demonstration
    using an A-10 aircraft. Gevo then hopes to become “a supplier of homegrown and
    renewable jet fuel to our armed services.”

     

    Gevo Awarded Contract to Supply Jet Fuel to U.S. Air Force

    28.9.2011

    Air Force Purchase is for Jet Engine Testing and Feasibility Flight Demonstration 

    ENGLEWOOD, Colo. (BUSINESS WIRE) — Gevo, Inc. a leading renewable chemicals
    and advanced biofuels company, has been awarded a contract by the Defense Logistics
    Agency (DLA) to supply jet fuel to the U.S. Air Force (USAF). DLA sources and
    provides nearly 100% of the consumable items America’s military needs to operate.
    The contract, worth a possible total of $600,000, provides that Gevo will supply
    the USAF with up to 11,000 gallons of ‘alcohol-to-jet’ (ATJ) based jet fuel, which
    will be used to support engine testing and a feasibility flight demonstration
    using an A-10 aircraft.

    “The USAF is committed to positioning itself to integrate cost competitive alternative
    aviation fuels for up to half of its domestic needs by 2016,” commented Christopher
    Ryan, Ph.D., president and COO of Gevo. “Once the USAF certifies our ATJ fuel,
    we believe we will have an excellent opportunity to become a supplier of homegrown
    and renewable jet fuel to our armed services.”

    This is the first ATJ fuel contract awarded by the DLA. The contract stipulates
    that Gevo will supply the USAF with 7,000 gallons of ATJ fuel. The fuel will be
    shipped to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, where the Air Force will finish lab
    testing and begin engine testing. DLA has the option to order up to an additional
    4,000 gallons at the end of the contract.

    The ATJ fuel is scheduled to be produced from isobutanol at Gevo’s hydrocarbon
    processing demonstration plant in Silsbee, Texas, in partnership with South Hampton
    Resources. The company plans to begin shipping product to the USAF in the first
    quarter of 2012.

    About Gevo

    Gevo is converting existing ethanol plants into biorefineries to make renewable
    building block products for the chemical and fuel industries. The company plans
    to convert renewable raw materials into isobutanol and renewable hydrocarbons
    that can be directly integrated on a “drop in” basis into existing chemical and
    fuel products to deliver environmental and economic benefits. Gevo is committed
    to a sustainable biobased economy that meets society’s needs for plentiful food
    and clean air and water. For more information, please visit
    http://www.gevo.com.

    http://ir.gevo.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=238618&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1610760

     

     

    The USA was, in 2010, apparently (Natiaonal Geographic) the largest producer
    of biofuels in the world.  And as much as 38% of the US corn (wheat) 
    crop went into bioethanol in 2010  (National Geographic).  It was 26% in 2009.. 
    This is the sort of alcohol being used to make the GEVO alcohol to jet fuel. Corn
    is a food crop, so production of this fuel is in competition with crops for human
    (or animal) food.

    http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/energy/great-energy-challenge/biofuel-quiz/?source=link_tw20110927env-biofuel

    http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/datablog/2010/jan/22/us-corn-production-biofuel-ethanol

     

     

    Also a long article Biofuel Digest on Gevo, the US military and investing in
    biofuels for aviation.

    http://biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2011/09/30/gevo-the-panicked-investor-and-the-aviation-fuels-opportunity/

    Gevo, the panicked investor, and the aviation fuels opportunity

    30.9.2011

    A long article, including this section below:

    The 2010s – glory years for alcohol jet fuels?

    What’s an airline to do in the years while HRJ aviation fuels are scaling up?

    Well, that’s where Gevo and ATJ fuels come in.

    The fuels are expected to be certified by around 2013 – and testing is now just
    getting underway for that. In fact, the Air Force contracted this month with Gevo
    to supply a quantity of renewable ATJ fuel for testing purposes. The contract,
    worth a possible total of $600,000, provides that Gevo will supply the USAF with
    up to 11,000 gallons of ‘alcohol-to-jet’ (ATJ) based jet fuel,
    which will be used to support engine testing and a feasibility flight demonstration
    using an A-10 aircraft
    . The fuel will be shipped to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, where the Air
    Force will finish lab testing and begin engine testing. DLA has the option to
    order up to an additional 4,000 gallons at the end of the contract.

    And it is participating (to the tune of $5 million) in the windfall from a USDA grant to the Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA), a consortium led by Washington State University (WSU), focused on the development
    of biojet fuel from woody biomass and forest product residues.

    The ATJ fuel is scheduled to be produced from isobutanol at Gevo’s hydrocarbon
    processing demonstration plant in Silsbee, Texas, in partnership with South Hampton
    Resources. The company plans to begin shipping product to the USAF in the first
    quarter of 2012.

    Gevo’s path to scale is fast. Its current feedstock of choice, corn starch, is
    already efficiently aggregated. What Gevo does is acquire an existing ethanol
    plant (or make a suitable JV arrangement) retrofit the plant over a nine-month
    period in which the plant is completely offline for around a month, for a cost
    of somewhere between 44 and 90 cents per gallon of ethanol capacity.

    A 100 million gallon ethanol plant will produce 76 million gallons of isobutanol,
    and to that is added a standard oil refining industry unit (well, custom-designed
    to fit an isobutanol plant, but standard in its process), which converts isobutanol,
    in a few steps, to a renewable jet fuel.

    Whether Gevo will ship ethanol to Texas for upgrading to jet fuel on a consolidated
    basis, or upgrade on site – that remains to be seen. With the upgrade cost at
    around the cost of a biobutanol retrofit, the Digest expects that ultimately Gevo
    would retrofit large-scale biobutanol plants, if it has sufficient contracts.

     

    and

     

    27.4.2011

    Gevo signs deal to convert isobutanol to jet fuel

     
    Gevo has signed a deal with Mustang Engineering to convert its isobutanol to
    bio-jet fuel. Under the engineering and consulting deal, Mustang will focus on
    the downstream processing of Gevo’s isobutanol into paraffinic kerosene (jet fuel).The
    deal is expected to help Gevo move forward with jet engine testing, airline suitability
    flights and, further down the line, commercial deployment.

    The Colorado-based firm raised USD107.3m through a Nasdaq IPO in February and
    had previously raised around USD74m in venture capital from investors including
    Khosla Ventures, Virgin Green Fund, Total, Burrill Life Sciences Capital and Malaysian
    Life Sciences Capital.

    Gevo develops catalysts and processing technology for producing isobutanol from
    feedstocks such as corn, sugarcane and cellulose-based biomass. The isobutanol
    is then used to make chemical intermediates, bio-based plastics and fuels that
    can be used in high concentrations with petrol in unmodified vehicle engines.

    Last year, the firm paid Agri-Energy USD20.7m to acquire an operational ethanol
    plant with an annual production capacity of 22m gallons. The Minnesota plant,
    which will be the firm’s first commercial-scale facility, will be retrofitted
    with its technology and is expected to begin producing isobutanol in the first
    half of 2012, when it will have a production capacity of 18m gallons per year.

    Gevo has signed letters of intent to supply chemical companies Lanxess, Total
    Petrochemicals, Toray Industries, United Air Lines and CDTECH. Last year, the
    firm announced that it had successfully produced and converted cellulose-based
    isobutanol into jet fuel.

    http://cleantech.strategyeye.com/article/K2o3IyXD1U/2011/04/27/gevo_signs_deal_to_convert_isobutanol_to_jet_fuel/

    Posted: Friday, September 30th, 2011. Filed in Biofuels News.

    Read more »

    Out of the Deep Fat Fryer … Thomson Airways and its first biofuel flight

    With Thomson Airways re-launching their attempts to get regular biofuels flights
    from Birmingham Airport, green campaigners are raising concerns that new “Sustainable
    Aviation Biofuels” are actually likely to be more damaging for the environment.
    After dropping plans to fuel flights with used cooking oil due to insufficient
    supply, Thomson are now going to be using virgin plant oil from a number of sources,
    none of which should properly be classified as sustainable.


     

    30.9.2011 (Birmingham Friends of the Earth)

    With Thomson Airways re-launching their attempts to get regular biofuels flights
    from Birmingham Airport, green campaigners are raising concerns that new “Sustainable
    Aviation Biofuels” are actually likely to be more damaging for the environment.

    After dropping plans to fuel flights with used cooking oil due to insufficient
    supply, they are now going to be using virgin plant oil from a number of sources,
    none of which would be classified by environmentalists as sustainable.

    These include the Babassu nut, exploitation of which would require mass displacement
    of indigenous people in South America and destruction of habitat essential for
    biodiversity.

    Joe Peacock from Birmingham Friends of the Earth said “It’s hardly surprising
    that they could not find that much cooking oil, as it is already much in demand.
    Tokenistic efforts to appear greener are fooling nobody and are just an attempt
    to get even more government subsidies into damaging the environment.

    “We cannot ignore the massive environmental and social problems caused by trying
    to feed our addiction to fossil fuels with plant-based alternatives.”

    “Aviation is already the most under-taxed and over-subsidised industry, so we
    should be looking to make sure it pays its fair share whilst becoming more environmentally
    responsible, not subisidise it to create an even worse situation.”

    Birmingham Friends of the Earth calls for a scrapping of all biofuel targets
    and research to be done into the impacts of current EU Renewable Energy Directive.

     

     

    Notes to Editors

    Birmingham Friends of the Earth campaigns on many environmental issues on a local,
    national and international level.
    http://www.birminghamfoe.org.uk/

    For more information on Birmingham Friends of the Earth’s stance on Aviation
    issues, please visit
    http://www.birminghamfoe.org.uk/aviation 

    TUI Travel have released a briefing on biofuels: http://www.aef.org.uk/downloads/TUI_(Thomson)_Aviation_Biofuels_Briefing_Paper%20Sept%202011.pdf 

    More information on the Babassu nut can be found here: http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=104818 

    Friends of the Earth’s latest briefing on biofuels is available at: http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefing_notes/biofuels_in_2011_gathering.pdf

     

     

    see also

     

    Thomson Airways plans its biofuel flight on 6th October, using a mix of oils
    as sufficient used cooking oil was not available

    Date Added: 29th September 2011

    Thomson will be flying its delayed first biofuel flight on 6th Oct from Birmingham
    to Arrecife. It was delayed from 28th July when supplies of used cooking oil could
    not be obtained in time. Thomson has put out a position paper on biofuels. Like
    other airlines, is getting a test flight with biofuels, hoping to persuade its
    customers and government that it is being “green” and environmentally responsible.
    Thomson hopes to have a daily flight using biofuel.

    Click here to view full story…

     

    and earlier

     

    Thomson Airways’ 50% cooking oil biofuel flight grounded after fuel delivery
    hitch

    27.7.2011
    The UK’s first commercial flight powered by “sustainable” biofuels has been postponed
    after delivery problems. Thomson Airways’ flight TOM7424 from Birmingham to Palma
    was scheduled for 28th July.  However, the airline said the green fuel pilot had
    been scraped as a delay beyond their control during the transportation of the
    fuel from the USA meant the testing process could not be done in time for the
    flight. Will probably take  place in September.   Click here to view full story…
     

    Posted: Friday, September 30th, 2011. Filed in Biofuels News.

    Read more »

    Thomson Airways plans its biofuel flight on 6th October, using a mix of oils as sufficient used cooking oil was not available

    29.9.2011

    Thomson Airways has put out a press release saying that it will be flying the
    delayed first biofuel flight on 6th October.  It was delayed from 28th July, (see
    below) when fuel supplies could not be obtained in time.  Also a position paper on
    biofuels.  Thomson, like a lot of other airlines, is getting a test flight with biofuels
    done as soon as it can, hoping to persuade its customers and the government that
    it is being “green” and environmentally responsible.
    Thomson is then hoping to have a flight each day using biofuel.


     

    Position paper on the introduction of biofuels into the Thomson Airways fleet  from Thomson

     
    AirportWatch comment on the proposed Thomson biofuel flights:
     
    Thomson, like a lot of other airlines, is getting a test flight with biofuels
    done as soon as it can, hoping to persuade its customers and the government that
    it is being “green” and environmentally responsible. 
    Thomson is then hoping to have a flight each day using biofuel.
     
    This is largely a PR exercise, possibly intended to show DfT that UK aviation
    business is taking a serious look at sustainability, so they can buddy up with
    the DfT in its development of UK future policy for aviation (aka more flights). They
    may think it will help DfT sell the idea of sustainable aviation to sceptics.

    They initially said they would be choosing jet fuel made from used cooking oil. 
    Now they concede that they need to use virgin plant oil, too.  Used cooking oil
    is is not a realistic option for more than a few token flights, as there are not
    sufficient supplies of the oil, and these are already bought up and used for biodiesel
    for road vehicles, and for a host of other terrrestrial uses. 

    There is no way that used cooking oil and tallow can provide fuel at sufficient
    volumes to fly planes. Ask yourself – how much olive / sunflower oil do you buy
    in a year, and how much do you throw away?  Or how many chips do you eat in a
    year, in how many deep fat friers?  All of the available used cooking oil in the
    UK is already going into road transport biodiesel and we import it from places
    like USA and the Netherlands. There is no spare supply of unwanted used cooking
    oil that the aviation industry can just plug into.  It is almost all being used
    already.

    The authors of the position paper ignore any ‘collateral damage’ from biofuel
    production, such as damage to people whose land is taken to grow crops, or whose
    livelihoods are negatively affected by biofuel plantations. Also the damage to
    global biodiversity and habitats. This may be cynical or just wilful ignorance. 
    One would hope that the DfT are not so naive as to be unduly influenced by this
    very lightweight piece of work.

    Thomson are now considering other sources of jet fuel, including worryingly,
    babassu nut.  They seem to have have avoided mention of jatropha, which has not
    had a particularly good press recently.  Its star status has crashed remarkably
    in the past months.  And no mention so far of palm oil, which is by far the most
    widely available and cheapest biofuel – which also causes huge environmental and
    social problems.

    The Babassu nut idea is dubious. Although there are estimated to be billions
    of such trees growing wild mainly in Brazil, they are low yielding and processing Babassu
    nuts for large volumes of oil looks rather problematic according to this UNFAO paper at
    http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5043E/x5043E04.htm and an excerpt and more information on babassu below.
     
    Of course if the biofuel industry want to make babassu oil work at large scale,
    they will be developing monoculture plantations with similar issues to those growing
    palm oil. The Babassu palm needs a tropical climate. The yield is probably only about
    1 tonne of oil per hectarre, which is about a quarter of that for palm oil.
     
    But perhaps the most worrying aspect of the Thomson / TUI position paper is its
    lobbying the UK and other  European governments, as well as the EU, for subsidies
    and other financial assistance. They want subsidies for
    for aviation biofuel research,  for developing aviation biofuel infrastructure
    for “biojet”and even a subsidy on the aviation biofuel itself.  This would come
    from the pockets of the taxpayer.
     
    The also suggest that EU ETS money should be partly given to biofuel incentives etc as above. And they
    want aviation to get a system like the road transport Renewable Transport Fuels
    Obligation (RTFO) Order.  Presumably with % aviation biofuel targets.  These targets
    are already providing to be immensely damaging, and ill advised in the case of
    road fuels. Even more so for aviation jet fuel. This needs to be strenuously opposed.
     
    Thomson do not appear in the least aware of the indirect land use implications
    of using biofuels.  This explicit commitment by Thomson to use biofuels, with
    indrect land use implications, is yet another example of the 
    lack of joined up thinking coming from the aviation industry. The DfT Aviation
    Scoping Document consultation is a good opportunity to point this out, and clearly
    put the counter-opinions. 

     

    Thomson Airways’ 50% cooking oil biofuel flight grounded after fuel delivery
    hitch

    27.7.2011 The UK’s first commercial flight powered by “sustainable” biofuels
    has been postponed after delivery problems. Thomson Airways’ flight TOM7424 from
    Birmingham to Palma was scheduled for 28th July.  However, the airline said the
    green fuel pilot had been scraped as a delay beyond their control during the transportation
    of the fuel from the USA meant the testing process could not be done in time for
    the flight. Will probably take  place in September.   Click here to view full story…
     


     

    Thomson Airways website, dated 26.9.2011, says:

    Thomson Airways – Sustainable Aviation Biofuels

    Which flights will be using sustainable biofuel?

    The first commercial flight in the UK using sustainable biofuel will commence
    from Birmingham to Arrecife on the 6th of October. Daily operations will begin
    in early 2012. Will you experience anything different during the flight?

    Quite simply, no. This will be a normal flight for you, just one that’s lighter
    on the environment.

    What is sustainable aviation biofuel?

    Sustainable aviation biofuel is a high quality jet fuel made from bio-derived
    oil, i.e. oil from plants such as jatropha, halophytes and camelina or from waste
    material such as used cooking oil.

    Has the sustainable aviation biofuel been tested?

    Yes, sustainable aviation biofuel has been rigorously tested to ensure that it’s
    completely safe, and has been fully certified and signed off for use in aircraft.

    Testing process

    *Given the high quality required of any fuels used in aircraft, the process of
    testing new fuels is particularly rigorous. Through testing in laboratories, in
    equipment on the ground and under the extreme operating conditions that the aviation
    industry requires, an exhaustive process determines those sustainable aviation
    biofuels that are suitable for aviation.

    *In the laboratory researchers develop a sustainable aviation biofuel that has similar properties
    to traditional jet fuel. The aircraft and engine manufacturers and other systems
    suppliers then run compatibility tests.

    *On the ground tests look at specific fuel consumption at several power settings from ground
    idle to take-off speed, which is then compared to performance with traditional
    jet fuel. Tests are also completed on the amount of time it takes for the engine
    to start, how well the fuel stays ignited in the engine and how the fuel performs
    in acceleration and deceleration. Finally, an emissions test determines the emissions
    and smoke levels for the sustainable aviation biofuel.

    *Once the lab and on-the-ground tests have been completed, the fuel’s ready to
    be tested on aircraft under normal operating conditions. A number of airlines
    have provided aircraft for sustainable aviation biofuel flight trials designed
    to

    - Provide data to support fuel qualification and certification for use by the aviation industry

    - Demonstrate that sustainable aviation biofuel is safe and that it works

    *During a test flight, pilots perform a number of ordinary and not-so-ordinary tests to ensure the
    fuel can withstand use under any operating conditions.

    *Boeing and Rolls Royce are completely confident in the safe use of sustainable
    aviation biofuel. Boeing has already done several test flights using Rolls Royce
    engines. In June 2011 Boeing performed the first trans-Atlantic flight arriving
    from Washington State at the Paris Airshow.

    What is the sustainable aviation biofuel that we’ll be using made of?

    Sustainable aviation biofuel can be made from a variety of plant-based or waste
    products. The feedstock that we’ll be using is used cooking oil. Used cooking
    oil is a pure waste stream, and as such has high sustainability potential.

    Why is sustainable aviation biofuel considered to be more sustainable than normal
    jet fuel?

    Using a sustainable resource to produce a fuel rather than a non-renewable fossil
    source means that we minimise our impact on the environment.

    It saves CO2 emissions

    Sustainable aviation biofuel has the potential to save as much as 80% of CO2
    emissions compared with traditional jet fuel. Simply put, this is because plants
    take CO2 out of the atmosphere whilst they grow.

    It can create work in developing countries

    There are many different potential plant and waste sources for sustainable aviation
    biofuel, meaning that it can be grown in locations almost worldwide, and can therefore
    create work and income for people in developing countries.

    How is sustainable aviation biofuel different from road based biodiesel?

    ‘First generation’ biofuel, such as biodiesel, has been used for a number of years. First generation biofuels
    are not considered to be very sustainable as they are most commonly made from
    ‘food’ crops such as sugars.

    ‘Second generation’ biofuel, such a sustainable aviation biofuel, are made from sources that do not compete
    with food crops, for example camelina which is grown as a rotational crop, or
    algae that grows in the sea. It can also be made from waste material such as used
    cooking oil.

    You may have heard of a thing called FAME which is associated with biodiesel.
    FAME is a fatty acid that can clog filters and isn’t allowed in jet fuel. Sustainable
    aviation biofuel doesn’t contain any FAME. This means that we don’t have any of
    the mechanical issues in aircraft that some people may have experienced in their
    cars with biodiesel.

     
     
     
     
    Babassu.  
     
    PROCESSING METHODS

    The fruits have a hard thick shell (averaging 5cm in diameter) which is difficult
    to crack by machine. It is estimated that a pressure of approxi mately 1 tonne
    is needed to crack the shells open. While mechanical crackers have been developed
    their weight and power requirements have in general made them inappropriate for
    use in Babassu growing areas. As 1 tonne of nuts only yields 120 kg of kernels
    transportation of whole nuts to crackers has also proved impractical. In most
    areas the kernels are extracted locally by hand. The National Academy of Sciences
    estimates that this hand cracking accounts for 57% of the total processing cost.
    (Anon) It is important that the seeds are dried before decortication. If they
    have a high moisture content damage, occurring during the process, can initiate
    enzy matic activity and cause rancidity in the oil.

    Decorticating is usually carried out at home although some women do remove the
    kernels in the forest. The fruit is placed on a hatchet blade or an axe and is
    hit with a wooden club until it splits. The broken pieces are in turn hit against
    the blade to dislodge the kernels. Most people can extract 3-5 kg kernels per
    day and a good worker can sometimes extract up to 10 kg.

    A small proportion of the kernels extracted (0.7 kg per household during peak
    harvest period) is used domestically. The rest are sold immediately after cracking.

     
    The UN FAO paper also states that Babassu production starts at about 8 years,
    so if this is to provide meaningful feedstock for aviation this decade, large
    scale planting would have to be underway already.  It will take time go gear up.
     
    Interestingly, wild Babassu use has a history of social conflict going back 30
    years – see this Practical Action site  http://stepin.org/casestudy.php?id=babassuoil&page=2     and Oxfam –
    http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/kidsweb/world/brazil/brazoxf2.htm
    It seems pretty certain that Thomson will source their babassu nuts from a Brazilian
    firm called Tecbio, which has signed a cooperation agreement with Boeing, partners
    in Thomson’s biofuel scheme.
    See: http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=104818 

    And here is an article about the 400,000 women and their families in Brazil whose
    livelihoods depend on bababassu and who are under serious threat from bioenergy
    developments including by Tecbio:
    http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=104818 .

    Posted: Thursday, September 29th, 2011. Filed in Biofuels News.

    Read more »

    Chinese airline aims for biofuel flight this year using jatropha

    27.9.2011 (Airport Business)

    Boeing China planning to make biofuel-powered jets
     
     
    Asia Pulse
     

    BOEING CHINA announced on Wednesday it plans to use biofuel as aircraft power
    for the first time and to launch the maiden flight of such a plane later this
    year, in conjunction with Civil Aviation Administration of China and AIR CHINA. 
     The use of bio-fuel is a complicated chain, involving planting the raw material
    and extracting fuel after the harvest.

    As one of the most important partners for Chinese aviation industry, Boeing has
    been focusing on innovation as the core strategy in recent years, setting up three
    laboratories in Shanghai, Beijing-based Qinghua University and Qingdao.

    According to an official with Boeing China, there are 35 Chinese suppliers for
    Boeing so far, making parts for all series of Boeing aircrafts including the 787
    and 747-800.

    http://www.airportbusiness.com/publication/article.jsp?siteSection=1&id=47661

     

    and

    Biofuels’ Potential to Transform the Global Economy

    1.8.2011 (Energy Collective)

    which includes this excerpt below:

    Fast forward to this March, when a European consortium of Airbus, Romanian state-owned
    airline Tarom, Honeywell’s UOP and CCE (Camelina Company España) announced plans
    to establish a bio-fuel production center in Romania to manufacture civil aviation
    fuel, using camelina as a feedstock.

    Farther east, last month China National Petroleum Corp. announced that it had
    delivered 15 tons of jatropha oil to help Air China operate the country’s maiden
    biofuel-powered test flight, tentatively scheduled for later this year. According
    to a posting on its website, CNPC, Asia’s largest oil producer, is proving that
    it has the ability to produce biofuel from non-grain feedstocks to clean up the
    environment.

    On Monday, Mozambique’s Agencia Informacao Mocambique news agency announced that
    Sun Biofuels Mozambique, a subsidiary of U.K.-based Sun Biofuels, has exported
    the first batch of 30 tons of jatropha oil produced from its fields in the central
    Mozambican province of Manica to Germany’s Lufthansa airline.

    The biggest single impetus to the development of biofuels for civil aviation
    occurred on 8 June, when the international standards certifying body ASTM International
    announced its approval of its BIO SPK Fuel Standard, to be made official later
    in the year, allowing the use of hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) Jet A-1 fuel
    in commercial aviation.

    Currently these biofuels are “drop ins,” and must be blended in a 50-50 mixture
    with Jet A-1 fuel derived from traditional fossil fuel kerosene.

    The biggest single independent meant at present to a wide scale production of
    jet biofuel is its inordinate cost. Biojet fuel delivered last year to the U.S.
    armed forces for evaluation cost more than $70 a gallon to produce, a price which
    obviously makes it at present supremely uncompetitive with fuel derived from traditional
    hydrocarbon sources. Supporters of biofuel production argue that processing costs
    will decrease in direct proportion to rising volumes of production.

    Both Brazil and the United States have viable biofuel production in the form
    of ethanol, in the case of Brazil derived from sugar cane, in the United States,
    produced from corn.

    …………….

    http://theenergycollective.com/staffjam/62109/biofuels-potential-transform-global-economy

     

     

    and

     

    Air Transport World

    1.2.2011

    Air China plans transpacific biofuel test flight in 2011

    PetroChina will provide jatropha-based feedstock for the project. The flight
    would follow a number of biofuel test flights conducted by airlines worldwide,
    including Air New Zealand, Continental Airlines, Japan Airlines (ATW Daily News, Feb. 2, 2009) and TAM (ATW Daily News, Nov. 24, 2010).

    Lufthansa plans to launch the world’s first scheduled commercial passenger flights
    using biofuel in the first half of this year, with an IAE-V2500-powered Airbus
    A321(ATW Daily News, Nov. 30, 2010).

     

    and

    30.8.2011 (The Energy Collective)

     by John Daly

    China Takes Recycled Fry-Oil Biofuels To Scale

    a few extracts below:

    According to a recent article in the People’s Daily, Beijing’s 19 million inhabitants
    are seeing the grease used to fry up their dim sum and other delicacies carted
    off by eight licensed collectors of used cooking oil, known as “hogwash,” for
    recycling into biofuel.

    ……….

    Beijing Hailianghongxin Bioenergy Ltd.’s collected hogwash oil is transported
    to a refinery in Gu’an county in Hebei province, owned by Gu’an Zhongde Lihua
    Petrochemical Co, the largest hogwash-to-biodiesel processing company in Beijing,
    and processed into biodiesel.

    Hogwash oil is extracted from rotten pork and peroxided oil, used repeatedly
    in frying.

    …….

    More ominously for China’s illicit hogwash oil trade long term prospects, KLM
    Royal Dutch Airlines has recently successfully tested hogwash oil biofuel derivatives
    as a possible Jet A-1 “drop in” civilian airplane fuel.

    http://theenergycollective.com/staffjam/64194/china-and-biofuels-stir-fry-or-fly?ref=node_other_posts_by

     

     

    and more on China and biofuels (2009)

    …..

    DOE Secretary Chu breaks with Obama over energy policy; aviation turns to China
    for biofuels capacity development

    13.10.2009

    Excerpt:

    In related news, Boeing confirmed that it has commenced talks with the Chinese
    Academy of Sciences and “several Chinese universities” about a potential development
    of low-carbon aviation biofuels.
    CCTV is reporting that near-term opportunities for collaboration between Boeing
    and China’s alternative energy industry
    could focus on jatropha development in Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou provinces
    and Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region. According to Xinhua News Agency, China is
    projecting “13 million hectares of biofuel plantations by 2020,” primarily to
    meet increased internal energy needs.

    Meanwhile, a meeting of leading biofuels scientists has been called in Beijing
    this fall that will provide advice to Chinese ministries preparing for an upcoming
    state visit of US President Barack Obama, with energy issues reported to be high
    on the agenda for the summit meeting. The US President, whose official policy
    calls for strong investments in solar, wind, and biomass as well as electric car
    infrastructure, and whose administration is the largest shareholder in the largest
    US maker of flex-fuel vehicles (General Motors), will head to China with his energy
    message in potential disarray.

    Both aviation and biofuels industry leaders have expressed concern that the capacity
    to manufacture the advanced, drop-in biofuels along timelines required by the
    aviation industry and emissions policy, will require state intervention to provide,
    and according to energy lobbyist Curt Rich, “no biofuels project is going to get
    a DOE loan guarantee based on the current DOE interpretation of US energy policy.”

    at

    http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/blog2/2009/10/13/doe-secretary-chu-breaks-with-obama-over-energy-policy-aviation-turns-to-china-for-biofuels-capacity-development/

    Posted: Tuesday, September 27th, 2011. Filed in Biofuels News.

    Read more »

    Biofuels May Push 120 Million Into Hunger, Qatar’s Shah Says

     


    Biofuel policies in countries from Australia to the U.S. may push 120 million people into hunger by 2050 while doing little
    to halt climate change, said Mahendra Shah, an advisor to Qatar’s food security
    program.

    So-called first-generation biofuels produced from commodity crops compete with
    food for land use and fertilizers, resulting in higher grain prices and increased
    deforestation, Shah said at the MENA Grains Summit in Istanbul today.

    World food output will have to rise by at least 70 percent by 2050 to feed a
    growing world population, according to Shah. The use of crops for biofuels is
    forecast to raise food prices by 30 percent to 50 percent in that period, Shah
    said, citing a study by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
    Fund for International Development, or OFID.

    “The first generation, we should never have done it,” said Shah, a policy advisor.
    “Biofuels will trigger an increase in agricultural prices. Biofuels will result
    in another 120 million people hungry, just because we’re growing biofuels.”

    Shah said the world food system is in crisis because natural resources are limited,
    land quality is worsening and water is scarce, meaning high food prices are here
    to stay.

    “The era of low food prices that we saw until the beginning of the millennium
    is over,” Shah said. “We’re not going to go back to an era of declining prices.”

    Government plans to boost ethanol and biodiesel production and mandates on using
    them in transport fuel will increase deforestation by between 20 million and 24
    million hectares (49 milion to 59 million acres) by 2050 and increase fertilizer
    use by 10 million tons, the OFID study showed, according to Shah.

    Biofuels Versus Food

    “Biofuels are also starting to compete with food use, and the question is, how
    far we will take these biofuels?” Shah said. “If you look at the cereal price
    index itself, prices will increase substantially over the period. We know that
    the first generation is not sustainable in the long run.”

    In the U.S., 40 percent of the corn crop is used to make ethanol, and rising
    corn prices because of the increased demand are also lifting wheat and rice prices,
    according to Shah.

    “If you suck corn out of a country’s market like in the U.S. it will affect the
    amount of corn available for human consumption but also feed,” the adviser said.

    Climate-change mitigation from biofuels will be “very limited” before 2050, partly because
    the corn and sugar cane used to make fuel are high in nitrogen-fertilizer consumption,
    according to Shah.

    “We will make no greenhouse-gases savings for the next 20 years by implementing
    biofuel policies, because they are working with first-generation crops,” Shah
    said. “It particularly defeats the whole purpose of saying we’ll use biofuels
    to reduce climate change.”

    Fuel Security

    Growing crops for biofuels to reduce reliance on oil may result in 6 percent
    to 12 percent transport-fuel security in 2030 and 2050, according to Shah.

    “If we focused on efficiency in energy use, within less than five years we could
    reach efficiency savings of 20 percent to 30 percent,” Shah said, adding
    energy efficiency should be a priority.

    The greatest potential for renewable transport fuels to mitigate climate change
    is in so-called third-generation biofuels produced from non-crop sources such
    as algae, according to Shah. In the meantime, first-generation biofuels won’t
    go away, he said.

    “The fact remains that those people who invested in factories to process corn
    into biofuels are going to buy corn at any price,” Shah said. “Industrialists
    have invested, they’re not going to step back.”

    To contact the reporter on this story: Rudy Ruitenberg in Istanbul at rruitenberg@bloomberg.net.

    To contact the editor responsible for this story: Claudia Carpenter at ccarpenter2@bloomberg.net.

    http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-09-26/biofuels-may-push-120-million-into-hunger-qatar-s-shah-says.html

    Posted: Monday, September 26th, 2011. Filed in Biofuels News.

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    Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division Flies Harrier on 50% Biofuel Blend

        The NAWCWD performed the first bio-fuel flight test in an AV-8B Harrier on 21st
    September, over NAWCWD’s land ranges in the upper Mojave Desert. The Harrier was
    put through a range of testing manoeuvres, and performed without problems. There
    were no anomalies detected that would prevent the Navy from using the biofuels
    blend for the AV-8B.  The US military are at the forefront of work on aviation
    biofuels, so they are not dependent on conventional oil imports.
     
    VX-31 Flies Harrier on Biofuel Blend for the First Time
     
    (The type of biofuel is not mentioned).
     
    26.9.2011 (ASDN – Aerospace and Defense News – USA)

    Enlarge image - VX-31 Flies Harrier on Biofuel Blend for the First Time
     

    China Lake, Calif. – 
    Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (NAWCWD), China Lake performed the
    first bio-fuel flight test in AV-8B Harrier #88, Sept. 21 over NAWCWD’s land ranges
    in the upper Mojave Desert.

    After preliminary ground test events earlier in the week, the Harrier was flown
    by Maj. Gary “Mouth” Shill, a pilot from Air Test and Evaluation Squadron (VX)
    31 at NAWCWD. According to Hal Bennett, project lead for the AV-8B bio fuel flight
    test program, the testing was flawless. Harrier #88 rolled down the runway several
    hundred feet before a short take off, then accelerated into a maximum performance
    climb. Testing included phasing maneuvers, hard cranks, wind up turns, hard turns
    with nozzle biting and even some inverted flight.


    “We usually have small challenges in a test flight,” Bennett stated, “but not
    on this one. We hit all the points – collecting the numbers and rolling through
    the complete card deck in an hour. It was very successful.”

    The last portion of the flight included performance hover maneuvers. The Harrier
    came in slow, about 100 feet off the ground, into a hover,” said Bennett. “It
    hovered for about two minutes to establish some engine performance parameters
    – to see how powerful the engine was at a given temperature. Shill depressed the
    rudders and moved the ailerons to check and validate the pitch, roll, yaw and
    hover characteristics. This allowed him to monitor and evaluate what impacts the
    ‘bleed air’ usage had upon engine performance. Again, no anomalies noted.”

    The test concluded when the pilot conducted a vertical landing and idled the
    motor a short time to let it cool. Shill said the Harrier performed on the 50/50
    blend as it does with standard JP8. “There were no anomalies that I detected that
    would prevent the Navy from using the biofuels blend for the AV-8B,” he said.

    “The instrumentation worked flawlessly,” Bennett said. “We conducted the test,
    captured the data and then debriefed. The NAWCWD Range Control Center folks were
    terrific. We usually have challenges during a test flight, but this whole thing
    went according to script.”

     
    http://www.asdnews.com/news/38403/VX-31_Flies_Harrier_on_Biofuel_Blend_for_the_First_Time.htm?utm_medium=twitter&utm_source=twitterfeed

    Posted: Monday, September 26th, 2011. Filed in Biofuels News.

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    Aviation industry going to biofuels made from alcohols, some from food crops

    Jet fuel can be made by combining two alcohol molecules. The aviation biofuel
    industry can see there will be a time delay in getting fuel from jatropha, camelia
    etc but it could produce fuel from alcohol faster. Some from corn or sugar cane,
    as well as non-food crops and woody biomass. Aviation accounts for 12% of the
    fuel used by the entire transport sector. Global aviation fuel demand may reach
    7.6 million barrels/day in 2012, up from 6.8 m barrels in 2007.


    Fly the (hic!) friendly skies: renewable jet fuel from alcohol

    by Jim Lane 
    14.9.2011  (Biofuels Digest)
     
    Making renewable jet fuel from booze…uh, alcohol…is the latest drop-in biofuels
    craze. Who is doing what, with whom, and when? And how do they do it?

     

    When most of us think of highly customized aviation alcohols, we probably think
    of the little bottles of Johnnie Walker. But a handful of companies such as Cobalt,
    Gevo, Terrabon, LanzaTech and ZeaChem, are shaking up the emerging aviation biofuels
    markets by developing renewable aviation fuels from ethanol and/or biobutanol.

    It’s been an improbable mission, but a handful are getting close enough that
    we had better explain the background before they achieve massive scale.

    Um, how do you make jet fuel from alcohol?

    “An alcohol molecule, looking at it one way, is really just a hydrocarbon carrying
    this extra OH [a hydroxyl group] on its back,” explains LanzaTech CEO Jennifer
    Holmgren. So, chemically reforming alcohol into jet fuel is not a bizarre form
    of medieval alchemy.

    But in the process, you generally need two ethanol molecules to make a jet fuel molecule, so unless you are interested in trying to sell $6 jet fuel, you had better start
    with something that produces much better than $3 ethanol.

    For that reason,alcohol to jet fuel should be properly seen as a niche market
    for ethanol producers – but, owning to the early interest in jet fuels from both
    commercial airline and the military, one that may break out towards commercial
    scale faster, for some companies, faster than their efforts to make commercial-scale
    ethanol fuel.

    Isobutanol and n-butanol, as made by Gevo, Cobalt and Butamax, is an alcohol
    with special applications in jet fuel because it is a four-carbon molecule to
    begin with. Back in 2009,
    Gevo opined that the first “Sasol Synthetic Jet was C12‐ centered isoparaffin
    mixture with similar properties”
    to Gevo’s jet fuel blend stock. Gevo said at the time that its jet fuel met
    all ASTM specifications except a slight miss on fuel density, and blended with
    25% Jet A it met all specs. Gevo also indicated that it could make a jet fuel
    blend stock at an operating cost equivalent to $65 oil.

    The feedstock dilemma

    For all the excitement over Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids” (HEFA) fuels,
    recently approved as a jet fuel spec by ASTM, and now already used in a 50/50
    blend with conventional fossil aviation fuels on commercial flights operated by
    Lufthansa and KLM, alcohol fuels have the attraction of opening up a more feasible
    pool of feedstocks.

    The achilles heel of HEFA fuel is the problem of getting enough fuel made from
    camelina, algae, jatropha or other non-food renewable oil sources. All three feedstocks
    check out brilliantly under operating conditions, but camelina and algae are in
    their infancy in terms of production at commercial scale; jatropha is much farther
    along, but is far from providing anywhere near the 30 billion gallons of biofuel
    the aviation industry would buy tomorrow, if the price and performance is on par
    with fossil fuels.

    On the alcohol side, there is the tantalizing prospect of traditional feedstocks
    like corn and cane, energy crops like miscanthus and switchgrass, or low-cost
    feedstocks like municipal solid waste or agricultural waste such as bagasse or
    corn stover. Not to mention the possibilities of utilizing woody biomass.

    Progress to date

    DARPA jumped into the file this year by funding a clutch of projects.

    Terrabon was awarded a $9.6 million, 18-month contract by Logos Technologies
    to design a more economical and renewable jet fuel production solution for the
    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Started in April of 2011, a customized
    production process for DARPA will be engineered, constructed and operated at Terrabon’s
    Bryan, TX demonstration facility in an effort to yield 6,000 liters of jet fuel
    through the use of the company’s advanced bio-refining technology MixAlco, in
    preparation for commercialization of this technology.

    “An important focus of this DARPA effort is to produce a sustainable, cost-effective,
    non-fossil-fuel-based solution to support the military’s jet fuel needs. We thoroughly
    reviewed many potential processes and solutions for this initiative, and came
    to the conclusion that this goal can best be achieved with help of Terrabon and
    their mixed alcohol oligomerization pathway, MixAlco,” said Dr. Greg Poe, CEO,
    Logos Technologies.

    MixAlco converts low-cost, readily available, non-food, non-sterile biomass into
    valuable chemicals such as acetic acid, ketones and alcohols that can be processed
    into renewable fuels.

    LanzaTech was also awarded DARPA funds to perform research focused on novel,
    low-cost routes to production of jet fuel from carbon monoxide sources. The LanzaTech
    project will focus on reducing the cost of alcohol intermediates, which will be
    thermochemcally converted to JP-8 renewable jet fuel.

    At the time, LanzaTech CEO Dr. Jennifer Holmgren said that the economics of alcohol-to-jet
    fuel are driven by the cost of alcohol intermediates – LanzaTech’s technology,
    which produces alcohols by gas fermentation of CO-rich feedstocks such as industrial
    off-gases, has the potential to be an economically and environmentally sound approach
    to alternative aviation fuels.

    Over in Colorado, Gevo announced it has signed an engineering and consulting
    agreement with Mustang Engineering to convert Gevo’s renewable isobutanol to bio-jet
    fuel. This effort will focus on the downstream processing of isobutanol to paraffinic
    kerosene (jet fuel) for jet engine testing, airline suitability flights and advancing
    commercial deployment.

    Once completed successfully, the company will initiate jet engine testing with
    engine manufacturers. Mustang is a global project management, engineering, procurement,
    and construction operations company serving the upstream oil and gas, refining
    and chemicals, pipeline, automation and control, and industrial markets.

    In Oregon, ZeaChem is proposing a 15 million gallon jet fuel output from its
    proposed integrated biorefinery in Boardman, Oregon (which would, alternatively,
    be able to produce 25 million gallons of ethanol), and said that it can have such
    capacity ready by 2014.

    Also, there is the California-based Byogy Renewables, whose CEO KEvin Weiss is
    chairing the ASTM committee on alcohol-to-jet specs. Byogy’s edge? It has a process
    that converts the alcohols to jet fuel, and like several advanced biofuels companies,
    has opened up a division based in Brazil.

    Supply

    In the case of LanzaTech, the company has signaled that it expects to be able
    to produce up to 15 billion gallons of renewable jet fuel (yes, that’s “billion”)
    from existing steel waste gases that are generally flared after being generated
    in blast furnaces, at an operating cost of $1.50 for the alcohol, suggesting a
    cost range of around $3 per gallon for jet fuel. Even adding in capital costs
    and margin, it’s getting to be in the ballpark of conventional fuel costs. LanzaTech
    is expecting to have its first 100 million gallon facility (ethanol) completed
    in China in 2013.

    Test results

    At the Paris Air Show this past summer, Gevo presented test results conducted
    by SRI International and the Air Force Research Lab to the alcohol jet review
    (ATJ) committee of ASTM. The next step in the ATJ specification will be work with
    engine manufacturers to complete commercial engine testing.

    Timeline

    Full certification of ATJ is expected in 2013, by which time Gevo expects to
    have 110 million gallons of isobutanol capacity for use in the jet fuel and chemical
    markets. United Airlines and Gevo have previously signed a non-binding offtake
    agreement from ORD, starting in 2013.

    The market and drivers for aviation fuels

    Worldwide demand for aviation fuels is growing fast, primarily due to growth
    in the robust Chinese aviation market. According to the International Energy Agency,
    aviation fuel demand will reach “7.6 million barrels per day in 2012, up from
    about 6.8 million barrels per day in 2007″. That translates into 116 billion gallons
    of jet fuel, globally, by 2012.

    Aviation accounts for 12% of the fuel consumed by the entire transportation sector,
    which is equivalent to roughly 1.5 to 1.7 billion barrels of kerosene annually
    (about 70 billion gallons).
      

    Analysts project that aviation biofuels will replace roughly 1% of kerosene by
    2015, 25% by 2025, and 30% by 2030. This represents a market value of US $2 billion,
    $56 billion, and $68 billion in delivered fuel respectively, assuming current
    kerosene prices.

    The emissions driver for renewable fuels

    Among demand drivers for Bio-SPK are the prospect of big carbon credit payments
    by airlines operating into, out of, or within Europe. Commencing in January 2012,
    the airline industry is scheduled to enter into the EU Emissions Trading Scheme,
    which will cap carbon emission levels, and is expected to cost airlines up to
    $19 billion in 2012 alone, according to a March report from Point Carbon.

    The bottom line

    So there you have it – from hooch to jet fuel, by the numbers. Generally, expect
    a fuel spec to be OKd in 2013, and fuel contracts to ramp up significantly in
    this decade. Not every producer is going to target ATJ – most companies make alcohol
    too expensively to make jet fuel work, and those that have transformatively low
    operating costs for alcohol production may simply focus more on the road transportation
    markets where mandates can create higher per-BTU prices for selling ethanol fuel
    than jet fuel.

    Two huge variables – the underlying price of conventional jet fuel, and the impact
    of low-carbon standards. If the trends on oil prices and carbon work out as expected,
    ATJ [Alcohol to Jet] could well be the major driver of aviation biofuel supply
    between now and the late 2010s or early 2020s when platforms such as jatropha
    and algae get more traction.

    http://biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2011/09/14/fly-the-hic-friendly-skies-renewable-jet-fuel-from-alcohol/

     

     

    see also

     

    Next Generation Jet Fuels


    Next Generation Jet Fuels

    22.6.2011  (Scoop business, New Zealand)


    Auckland, New Zealand June 22, 2011: Clean energy technology company LanzaTech is at the world’s largest air show in Paris showing the aviation industry its technology for producing next generation jet
    fuels.

    Dr Jennifer Holmgren, LanzaTech’s chief executive, says the aviation industry
    (both its commercial and military sectors) is keen to reduce its carbon footprint
    and is looking to low carbon fuels as an element of a basket of solutions to help
    achieve that target.

    LanzaTech has just been awarded funds from the United States’ Defense Advanced
    Research Projects Agency (
    DARPA) to perform research focusing on novel, low cost routes for the production of
    jet fuel (JP-8) from carbon monoxide (CO) rich sources.




     

    The project will focus on technology development to reduce costs for producing
    alcohol intermediates, which will be thermochemically converted to JP-8.

    “The Department of Defense has set ambitious targets for alternative fuel use
    with the Air Force goal of 50% alternative fuel use in all its domestic flights,
    and the Navy’s objective to use 50% alternative fuel across all of its operations
    by 2020,” Dr Holmgren says.  

    Alternative aviation fuels are a key theme at the Paris Air Show this year. The
    New Zealand founded Lanzatech is part of the global exhibition showcase.

    Dr Holmgren says biofuels produced through hydroprocessing of lipids recently
    received approval by ASTM (American Society of Testing and Materials). The next
    biofuel expected to be certified will be fuel prepared from alcohols. LanzaTech
    is represented on an alcohols-to-jet (ATJ) task force, which is working on the
    certification process.

    The efficient conversion of alcohols to aviation fuel has already been demonstrated
    by a number of groups. Dr Holmgren says a number of those routes for converting
    alcohols produce aromatics not just isoparaffins, which means there is a possibility
    of longer term certifying a fully synthetic aviation fuel (not just a blend stock).

    “There is a need to stabilize the price of aviation fuel, which can only happen
    if there is more than one source of such fuels,” Dr Holmgren says. “However, the
    rapid adoption of alternative aviation fuels requires that they be sustainable
    in all dimensions – environmental, social and economic.

    “LanzaTech provides a sustainable, cost-competitive route to drop-in hydrocarbon
    fuels by producing alcohols from CO-rich feedstocks, such as industrial off gases
    that have no impact on food or water security.”

    Dr Holmgren says LanzaTech’s approach for the production of alcohols also results
    in a cost effective final aviation fuel.

    “In order to deliver cost competitive aviation fuels from alcohols, the price
    of the alcohol must be driven to a very low number,” she says. “The reason for
    this is that ethanol to jet conversion requires that two gallons of alcohol be
    converted per gallon of jet fuel produced. Therefore the alcohol must be produced
    at a low enough cost that the 2x factor on a per gallon basis doesn’t make the
    aviation fuel cost prohibitive.

    “We believe that there are a number of handles which can further reduce the price
    of our alcohol such that the final aviation fuel will be cost competitive with
    petroleum derived fuels without incentives. DARPA’s support will enable us to
    continue to improve the economics of this unique technology platform, leading
    to an economically and environmentally sound approach to alternative aviation
    fuels.”

     

    http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/BU1106/S00745/next-generation-jet-fuels.htm

     

     

    Posted: Saturday, September 24th, 2011. Filed in Biofuels News.

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