Aviation policy, future growth & growth forecasts

Title:  Drawing up a new aviation policy
Date:     January 2011
Author:  AirportWatch
Length:   4 pages
Summary:   The new Government has an historic opportunity to be fair to other businesses and industry by ending the favorable treatment enjoyed by aviation on tax and emissions.
Link:   New Aviation Policy document 
Title:  Further Fallible Forecasts 
Date:    March 2009
Author:  AirportWatch Aviation Economics Group
Length:   4 pages
Summary:  An update has now been written by AirportWatch’s Aviation Economics Group, in response to the DfT’s publication of the “UK Air Passenger Demand and CO2 Forecasts 2009” in January 2009.   The update takes account of numerous changes that have taken place over the past year, which affect forecasts.  
Link:   Further Fallible Forecasts
Title:   “Fallible Forecasts”  – a critique of the 2007 air passenger forecasts. 
Date:  March 2008
Author:  AirportWatch’s Aviation Economics Group.
Summary:    The new forecasts produced by the Department for Transport are shown to be unreliable. They depend on a series of questionable assumptions.   “Fallible Forecasts” goes through forecasts for air traffic, for climate change damage and for the forecast net economic benefits of new runways at Heathrow and Stansted, and finds serious deficiencies in the Government’s arguments.
Link:    “Fallible Forecasts” 





Title:  “Contested Evidence: The case for an independent review of aviation policy” 


Date:  September 2008
Author:  Sustainable Development Commission
Length:   16 pages    395 KB
Summary:   The Sustainable Development Commission’s summary of conflicting arguments and incomplete data underpinning aviation policy. 
Link:   SDC_Contested_Evidence_Briefing_Paper.pdf   
SDC press release 16.9.2008



Title:   AirportWatch leaflet and flyer:   “WANTED – a rethink of UK aviation policy”
Date:   December 2006
Author:   AirportWatch
Length:   4 pages
Summary:  The December 2006 review of the Government’s Aviation White Paper reaffirmed its expansion plans.  AirportWatch is calling for a fundamental rethink of government policy on aviation.  The leaflet sets out the issues, and suggests a way forward. 
Link:    AirportWatch leaflet: “WANTED – a rethink of UK aviation policy”     A5 flyer version

The solutions AirportWatch suggest include:

Reining back expansion so it is consistent with climate change targets
Recognising the limits rising oil prices will put on demand for air trips
Removing the tax-breaks the aviation industry enjoys
Reassessing air freight
Reducing the noise suffered by local communities
Respecting the county’s heritage, biodiversity and ancient woodlands
Revisiting Rail
Revising the economic assessment of the aviation industry
Reviewing the big expansion plans for the UK airports




Title:  “Pie in the Sky”
Date:   September 2006
Author:  Friends of the Earth
Length:    36 pages
Summary:   Why the costs of airport expansion outweigh the benefits.   Pie in the Sky, published by Friends of the Earth in Sep 06, debunks the claims of the industry about the economic benefits of air travel and concludes that the costs of expansion actually outweigh the benefits.
Link:    Pie in the Sky – Friends of the Earth 




Title:  “Fly Now – Grieve Later” 
Date:  June 2005
Author:  Aviation Environment Federation  AEF  (Brendon Sewill)
Length:  47 pages    1.2 MB
Summary:   The author is Brendon Sewill, who also wrote the “The Hidden Cost Of Flying” in 2003.  “Fly Now – Grieve Later” deals with climate change and the use of ‘economic instruments’.  Economic instruments are financial measures such as charges, taxes and subsidies which can affect the environmental impact of aviation. Fly Now – Grieve Later” takes off where “The Hidden Cost Of Flying” landed.  The scope has been broadened to make it more applicable to the EU and beyond.  The booklet looks at technical, economic, social and political angles and considers the impediments to action.
Link:      ‘Fly Now – Grieve Later’ : summary       
‘Fly Now – Grieve Later’ : booklet (1.2 Mbytes)  pdf



Title:   AirportWatch study on the December 2006 OEF report
Date:   February 2007
Author:  AirportWatch
Length:   7 pages
Summary:  The study found that the claimed economic benefits of air travel in the Government’s Progress Report on the Future of Air Transport published in December were largely based on a consultant’s report paid for by the aviation industry.  Despite growing concern about the impact of aviation growth on climate change, the Progress Report confirmed the government’s determination to press ahead with airport expansion, justifying this on the grounds of economic benefit.
Link:  AirportWatch study on OEF report     “entitled Alexander’s Ragtime Band”.




Title:  “The Hidden Cost of Flying”   
Date:   2003
Author:   Brendon Sewill, for AEF
Length:   28 pages
Summary:   This report was published in 2003, prior to the aviation White Paper. It deals with the economic aspects of airport expansion. Things have moved on, but the economic issues remain wholly relevant.

“Important decisions about the future of aviation are due to be announced around the end of 2003 in a White Paper covering the next thirty years. The Department for Transport (DfT) published consultation papers in July 2002 setting out proposals for expansion at many airports, with options for new runways at Heathrow, Stansted, Birmingham, East Midlands, and in Scotland; and possible new airports at Cliffe, at Church Lawford between Coventry and Rugby, and perhaps at Bristol. Following judicial review of the decision to exclude Gatwick, a further consultation is being undertaken.

The airlines are lobbying hard for expansion while, not surprisingly, the plans are creating substantial opposition. The environmental case against expansion is well known: the growing impact of aviation on climate change, noise and pollution around airports, destruction of landscape, wildlife and heritage. This booklet, however, is designed to subject the economic case for aviation growth to critical examination.”
Link:    The Hidden Cost of Flying  pdf

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Regional Airports

Regional airports 
Title:   “The Expansion of Regional Airports  – Really a good thing?”

Date:   September 2009
Author:  AirportWatch
Length:   12 pages
Summary:    The report argues the case against the expansion of regional airports.  There are strong arguments on grounds of the air tourism deficit losing local economies billions; on the carbon emissions generated by these airports, and the local environmental and noise implications. 
Link:     The Expansion of Regional Airports  
     and one page summary. 

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Reports on Specific Airports

Specific airport related reports 

Title:  Book “Victory Against All The Odds” 
Date:   August 2010
Author:  by John Stewart, HACAN
Length:   52 pages  pdf
 Summary:  The story of how the campaign to stop a third runway at Heathrow was won.  “The victory was no fluke. It wasn’t a question of luck. It was the result of a clear strategy, a radical approach, daring tactics and an utter refusal by the campaigners to believe that we wouldn’t win”.
Link:   Victory Against All The Odds    

Title:   Flight Paths Report  “Approach Noise at Heathrow: Concentrating the Problem”      
Date:   March 2010
Author:  AEF for HACAN
Length:   24 pages   2.07 MB)
Summary:   A major study – by the Aviation Environment Federation – has been published by HACAN. It outlines practical measures which would reduce aircraft noise for countless numbers of people living under the Heathrow arrivals flight paths.  The study was commissioned in response to the increasing number of complaints about Heathrow noise from people living many miles away from the airport and who used not to be affected.  The report has identified the reasons these areas are now affected and suggests remedies.
Link:     Press release   
     Easterly arrivals map  and   Westerly arrivals map   (each 2.4 MB) 


Title:  Heathrow.  “Flaws Galore”
Date:    February 2008
Author:  AirportWatch Aviation Economics Group
Length:   6 pages
Summary:   This paper has identified over 20 serious flaws in the Government’s economic case for expanding Heathrow airport.  It assesses the assumptions on future oil price, taxes on aviation, the economic benefit of transfer passengers and the real value to business.  The paper’s findings support the findings of the major report published recently from the independent Dutch consultants CE Delft. 
Link:   Flaws Galore     



Title:   CE Delft Report on Heathrow economics – “The Economics of Heathrow Expansion”

Date:   February 2008
Author:  CE Delft
Length:   111 pages    882 KB
Summary:   CE Delft’s report undermines the economic case for expansion at Heathrow. It challenges Government claims that its current proposals to expand Heathrow will benefit the economy to the tune of £5 billion. It argues the Government’s figures are based on flawed research which overestimates the importance of aviation to the economy.
Link:     The Economics of Heathrow Expansion 
Read the CE Delft press release and key points summary and One page summary




Title:  The submission from the World Development Movement on the Heathrow consultation

Date:  February 2008
Author:   WDM
Length:   19 pages
Summary:   The global challenge of climate change should form part of the scope of the consultation for adding capacity at Heathrow.  WDM’s response to the consultation therefore focuses on the implications of extra capacity at Heathrow for tackling climate change.
Link:  Adding capacity at Heathrow airport – WDM response




Title:  Friends of the Earth Briefing –  “Heathrow expansion – its true costs”

Date:   January 2008
Author:  Friends of the Earth
Length:  10 pages
Summary:    The Heathrow consultation presents the economic case as a given.  However, the economic case is flimsy in the extreme. This briefing presents five main arguments why it should not be accepted.  In summary, the consultation misleads the public as to the benefit of extra capacity at Heathrow.  Under more realistic assumptions, Heathrow expansion does not provide net economic benefits.  Valuing climate change properly means expansion has net economic costs.  The prime justification for expansion does not stack up.
Link:    Heathrow expansion – its true costs




Title:   Heathrow.  “Emissions Impossible”

Date:    February 2006
Author:  Aviation Environment Federation  (AEF)
Summary:   An assessment of the noise and air pollution problems at Heathrow airport and the measures proposed to tackle them.  Noise and air pollution pose severe environmental and public health problems at Heathrow and in the surrounding area.   Nonetheless, the Government and the aviation industry wish to expand the airport, first by switching to ‘mixed mode’ operations (that is, ending the practice of runway alternation), and then by the addition of a third runway.
Link:    Emissions Impossible report – on Heathrow
Title:  “A Critique of The Gatwick Airport Climate Change”
Date:  August 2009
Author:  Gatwick Area Conservation Campaign  (GACC)
Length:   5 pages
Summary:  BAA Gatwick produced a report on the carbon emissions from the airport, in August.   GACC has commented on its deficiencies. 
Link:  The BAA report is   Gatwick Airport, Climate  Change Report  
 and the GACC critique is GACC Critique of Gatwick Climate Change Report     

and GACC’s earlier report:

Title:  “Gatwick destroying climate change targets”  
Date:    June 2007
Author:  Gatwick Area Consernvation Committee
Length:   14 pages  314 KB
Summary:   A study of the emissions caused by aircraft using Gatwick Airport –   by GACC
Gatwick handles 17% of UK passengers. The distance flown by planes from Gatwick is probably about equal to the national average – less than from Heathrow but more than from other airports. That would indicate that aircraft from Gatwick on their outward journeys emit about 6.5 Mt of CO2.
Link:     Gatwick wrecking climate targets   





Title:  “The Two Faces of BAA”

Date:   February 2006
Author:  AirportWatch
Length:   25 pages  1397 KB
Summary:   The report was a devastating indictment of BAA, revealing the harsh reality behind the responsible and green image that BAA tries to cultivate.   BAA is planning new runways at Stansted, Heathrow, Edinburgh and possibly Gatwick and Glasgow, as well as an increase in flights at Southampton and Aberdeen, where, last year, it introduced night flights.  The report compares the image BAA tries to present at each of its seven UK airports with the actual effect its expansion plans will have on the residents and the local environment, as well as BAA’s close links with Government.
Link:     The Two Faces of BAA




Title:    Erosion of the Community
Date:    August 2006
Author:   Stop Stansted Expansion
Length:  34 pages
Summary:  How an airport can damage the local community. Stop Stansted Expansion have produced a response, presented to Uttlesford District Council, about the very severe impacts which the airport’s operations were already having on the community and on the lives of the people who live there, as a result of growth at the airport.  It describes stress, anxiety, noise pollution, light pollution, traffic problems and breakdown in community life. 
Link:  Erosion of the Community – from the SSE website


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Noise, Flight Paths and Health

Noise, flight paths, health 

Title:  “Aircraft Noise: Time for a rethink”

Date:       January 2011
Author:    AirportWatch
Length:    8 pages
Summary:   Although aircraft have become less noisy over the past three decades, this gain has been
overwhelmed by a huge increase in the number of planes in the skies. The Government’s new aviation policy, which it will begin to draw up in 2011, provides the opportunity to rethink and update policy to take account of this new reality.
Link:    Noise briefing document “Time for a rethink” 
Title:   Good practice guide on noise exposure and potential health effects
Date:    November 2010
Author:  European Environment Agency
Length:   2.3 MB
Summary:  The report supports the findings of the ANASE Study and shows that people are disturbed by much lower levels of aircraft noise than has been previously admitted. For example, at a noise level of 55 dB, 27% are highly annoyed by aircraft noise, but only 3% are highly annoyed by rail noise and 6% by road noise.
Link:  http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/good-practice-guide-on-noise


Title: “No Longer a West London Problem” 


Date:     Autumn 2010


Author:  John Stewart, HACAN


Length:  4 pages


Summary:  There is a real problem of aircraft noise for some people living over 25 miles from the Heathrow.  The new European report (link above) shows people are disturbed by much lower levels of aircraft noise than has been previously admitted.. HACAN says this backs up what its supporters have been saying for years.


Link:    Aircraft Noise: No longer a West London Problem 



Title:  “Review of the airport draft Noise Action Plans”
Date:  February 2010
Author:  Aviation Environment Federation  (AEF)
Length:   15 pages
Summary:   Research by AEF for AirportWatch has found that airport ‘noise action plans’ will fail to tackle impacts on local communities. European laws now require airports to draw up action plans to tackle their noise pollution. But these plans are written by the airports themselves, and just re-state what they already have to do to comply with, local planning requirements. Not one plan meets all the requirements of the EC law, and airports have failed even to comply with the weak demands of the EU’s legislation.    
Link  New Style, Old Story: a review of UK airport noise action plans 
Title: Night noise guidelines for Europe
Date:  October 2009
Author:  WHO/Europe
Length:   162 pages  (1.7MB)   ISBN 978 92 890 4173 7
Summary:   Environmental noise is a threat to public health, having negative effects on human health and well-being. This book reviews the health effects of exposure to night-time noise, examines dose–effect relations, and presents interim and ultimate guideline values for exposure. Outstanding scientists reviewed the scientific evidence in the WHO European Region and used it to draw up the guideline values. The guidelines were peer-reviewed and discussed to reach a consensus among the experts and stakeholders. This book offers guidance to policy-makers in reducing the effects of night-time noise, thus helping to improve the health of the people in the Region.
Link  English – Night noise guidelines for Europe 

Title:  Ranch study – Aircraft and road traffic noise and children’s cognition and health: a cross-national study
Date:  2005
Author:  Ranch study in the Lancet
Length:   8 pages
Summary:   Exposure to environmental stressors can impair children’s health and their cognitive development. The effects of air pollution, lead, and chemicals have been studied, but there has been less emphasis on the effects of noise. The aim of the study, therefore, was to assess the effect of exposure to aircraft and road traffic noise on cognitive performance and health in children.
Link:  http://www.stopstanstedexpansion.com/documents/Lancet_Article_3_June_2005.pdf
Title:   HYENA (HYpertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports study 
Date:   March 2008
Author:  A group of university medical research departments
Length:  5 pages
Summary:  Results indicate excess risks of hypertension related to long-term noise exposure, primarily for night-time aircraft noise and daily average road traffic noise
Link:  HYENA (HYpertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports study.pdf   
 HYENA (HYpertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports) study  (Aug 2009) 

             (only the abstract is available free of charge)
Title:  ANASE (Attitudes to Noise from Aviation Sources in England) – extracts only.
Date:   October 2007
Author:  MVA Consultancy
Length:    Original document is 144 pages, extracts are 5 pages
Summary:  As the sound level indicator LAeq increases, the annoyance levels of respondents also increase. For a given LAeq there is a range of reported annoyance indicating that annoyance is not determined solely by the amount of aircraft sound as measured by LAeq. People are more annoyed by aircraft noise now than they used to be, and at lower levels. This study, done for the DfT, has been shelved and not acted upon.
Title:  “Flying to Distraction”
Date:   2003
Author:  Campaign to Protect Rural England (CPRE)
Summary:  A leaflet summarising the findings of Aviation, Noise and the Countryside. Includes maps for 2000 and 2030 showing how the Government’s forecasts for air travel would impact on the tranquillity of the countryside and communities.
Link:   Flying to Distraction     pdf

Various Briefings on Aircraft Noise and Health:

•  Health impacts of aircraft noise  (July 2011)   10 pages
      – briefing for the DfT aviation policy scoping consultation
                European Environment Agency   Nov 2010             
•  Public health impact of large airports     (Dutch Government – 1999)
             (only the abstract is available free of charge)
•  HYENA HYENA (HYpertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports study.pdf     (March 2008)                     
             CONCLUSIONS:  Results indicate excess risks of hypertension
             related to long-term noise exposure, primarily for night-time
             aircraft noise and daily average road traffic noise.
            (2010).  Preliminary findings only.

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Publications on Economics and Employment

Economics and Employment 

Title:  AirportWatch briefing on economics and aviation
Date:       January 2011
Author:    AirportWatch
Length:    8 pages
Summary:   The Government, as it begins to draw up its aviation policy in 2011, would do well to take a long, hard look at what the aviation industry actually contributes to the economy
Link:      AirportWatch economics briefing 

Title:   “Airport Jobs: false hopes, cruel hoax”

Date:   March 2009 
Author:  Aviation Environment Federation (AEF) 
Length:  23 pages 
 Summary:   A new study of the employment provided by airports and airlines from the economist Brendon Sewill concludes that the Government should stop giving people false hopes about the number of jobs which would be created by the expansion of airports. 
Link:   The report and executive summary are at    “Airport Jobs: false hopes, cruel hoax”   





Title:  “£10 billion a year tax bonus for airlines even with increase in Air Passenger Duty (APD)”

Date:  October 2009
Author:  AirportWatch
Length:  1 page
Summary:  Treasury figures show that, even with the APD increase, aviation continues to receive significant tax-breaks.  The notional benefit that aviation receives by paying no fuel tax and no VAT is up to £10 billion a year.  By contrast Air Passenger Duty in 2009-10 is expected to raise £1.8 billion. 
Link:   link to article…




Title:   “Plane Truths – Do the economic arguments for aviation growth really fly?”
Date:  September 2008
Author:  World Development Movement (WDM) and New Economics Foundation (NEF)
Length:   60 pages
Summary:  New research says the economic case for airport expansion is unfounded, and international tourism is more of a risk than a benefit for developing nations. This report reveals that increased air travel and tourism leaves UK taxpayers out of pocket, and benefits multinational tour operators and hotel chains, rather than the poor.     
WDM press release on the launch
Link:   link to report …


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AirportWatch Bulletins

AirportWatch bulletins

AirportWatch produces news bulletins about every 6 weeks – with updates on the most recent developments on UK airports and aviation
Apr 2011            
Nov 2010             
Oct 2010              
Aug 2010     
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Feb 2008            
Oct 2007           
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June 2007              
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Dec 2006           
Nov 2006                
Oct 2006            

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