Momentum gathering towards aviation biofuels commercialisation as US and European policy-makers signal support
boost with a number of initiatives and events taking place at last week’s Paris
wide attention and media column inches (
progress towards a viable alternative jet fuel industry.
officials from the US Department of Commerce and the European Commission, to the
Alternative Aviation Fuels Showcase taking place in one of the exhibition halls
added weight to growing optimism from the aviation and biofuels sectors that policy-makers are getting behind a drive to implement a coherent strategy towards
large-scale commercialisation of sustainable aviation biofuels production in Europe
and the US.
of Agriculture (USDA) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) were making
major concerted efforts to find alternative aviation fuel opportunities. “We understand
how significant this is to the industry,” he said.
fuel needs of the future. The USDA is excited about the opportunities presented
by the requirement for aviation biofuels as it provides an opportunity for farmers
to diversify income, and to take non-productive land which can be used for fuel
and the private sector to identify potentially efficient and workable feedstocks.
and the capacity to produce these fuels so we are working through the Farm Bill
programme to provide loan guarantees to companies to assure their bankers as they
make the several hundred million dollar investment to build commercial-size biorefineries
that they have a partner in the USDA to provide the security to reduce the risk,”
and the operation of the facilities. “This is also important because they will
likely be located in rural areas across the country and many of America’s farm
producers today require off-farm income to keep their farms.
their own farming operations and for that reason we established the Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) to provide resources to farmers to produce these new feedstocks on their lands
and offset some of the expense of planting and growing a new crop, and over the
next couple of years make it profitable for them to do this.”
of a five-year commitment, with each project covering areas of roughly 50,000
acres (20,200 hectares) and the growing of feedstocks including camelina and miscanthus.
“We see this as an extraordinary opportunity [for biofuel technology companies]
to ‘out-innovate’ the competition. Once you have innovation, it fuels competition
and creates efficiency and cost-effectiveness.”
on commercial aviation,” he suggested.
Energy and the Navy to investigate how they can work together to speed up the
development of drop-in biofuels. “Competitively-priced drop-in biofuels could
help meet the fuel needs of the Navy, as well as the commercial aviation and shipping
sectors,” he said in a speech.
Initiative (CAAFI) told GreenAir that he expected significant implications for the aviation biofuels sector to
result from the announcement.
meeting carbon emission reduction targets are the main concern of European policy-makers and there is a growing acceptance
within the European Commission that sustainable biofuels may provide a real opportunity
to reduce aviation’s carbon footprint in the longer term. There is also recognition
in European circles that other transport modes can move to other renewable energy
sources that are not available to commercial aircraft and so the development of
aviation biofuels must be supported as a matter of urgency.
and European airlines and biofuel producers, launched a new initiative to speed
up commercialisation of aviation biofuels in Europe. The European Advanced Biofuels Flightpath is targeting the supply of two million tonnes (around 660 million US gallons or 2.5 billion litres) of sustainable
biofuels into the EU civil aviation sector by 2020.
the Commission’s energy and transport directorates together with representatives
from the aviation and biofuels industry and NGOs.
and distribution of sustainably produced drop-in biofuels for use in aviation
and establish appropriate financial mechanisms to support the construction of
industrial ‘first of a kind’ advanced biofuel production plants. More specifically,
the participants will:
facilitate the development of standards for drop-in biofuels and their certification
for use in commercial aircraft;
work together with the full supply chain to further develop worldwide accepted
sustainability certification frameworks;
agree on biofuel offtake arrangements over a defined period of time and at a
promote appropriate public and private actions to ensure the market uptake of
paraffinic biofuels by the aviation sector;
establish financing structures to facilitate the realisation of second-generation
accelerate targeted research and innovation for advanced biofuel technologies,
especially algae; and
take concrete action to inform European citizens of the benefits of replacing
kerosene with certified sustainable biofuels.
and long-term (up to 2020) objectives, with an aim to start construction of the
first series of second-generation aviation biofuel plants within three years and
to become operational by 2015-16. By 2018, the plan is for one million tonnes of hydrotreated sustainable oils
and 200,000 tonnes of synthetic aviation biofuels to reach the aviation market.
to be in operation by 2020, producing a further 800,000 tonnes of aviation biofuels
for use at most EU airports.
from the Commission’s energy directorate said two workshops were being set up
to take place in Brussels in the autumn to bring stakeholders together with financial
institutions and a technical workshop was planned for September to map all potential
that would need to be addressed including ensuring sustainability criteria was in line with the EU Renewables Directive stipulation for a 60% reduction requirement in biofuel lifecycle emissions from 2020; seeking the involvement of the European Investment Bank [see below for more] in providing equity capital; and reaching agreements between aviation biofuel
buyers and suppliers on prices and contract lengths.
Günter Oettinger, said: “This is a unique opportunity to create the first industrial
venture ever introducing sustainable biofuels for commercially competitive operations.
The Commission therefore fully supports all efforts in this direction and will
actively contribute to their success. They are fully in line with our European
Strategic Energy Technology Plan.”
of state and governments in February and will be used as the basis for the working
methods and governance of the Biofuels Flightpath.
Tom Enders said: “Our catalyst role is to bring together stakeholders such as
advanced biofuel producers, airlines and lawmakers in value chains, in order to
achieve this common goal more quickly. Only by working together can we meet our
ambitious target to make air transportation truly sustainable.”
also involved with the initiative. Air France-KLM CEO Pierre Henri Gourgeon said
the Flightpath was giving “the right signal” for the emergence of a European supply
for the aviation industry to reduce its impact on climate change. This announcement
will provide the incentive needed for European airlines to accelerate their plans
to use biofuels to power their fleets. We are already embarking on plans for Europe’s
first sustainable jet fuel plant and hope that initiatives such as this will encourage
others to follow our lead.”
two more were announced during the Paris Air Show involving KLM and SkyNRG, and
a collaboration between the civil aviation authorities of Italy and Spain. The
latter involves Italy’s ENAC together with Spain’s AESA and SENASA in which they
will jointly work on the research and development of sustainable alternative aviation
fuels, in particular on certification and testing.
Alternative Fuels and Energy for Aviation (SWAFEA) study instigated by the European
Commission’s Directorate General for Transport and Energy – now separated into
DG Energy (DG ENER) and DG Mobility and Transport (DG MOVE) – to investigate the
feasibility and impact of alternative aviation fuels, and evaluate potential new
energy sources. The results of the two-year study, lead by French aerospace R&D
body Onera and involving European and international industry and research partners,
were passed to the Commission following an international conference in February.
be published very shortly.
announced at the Paris Air Show in separate articles
European Investment Bank (EIB)
(EIB) is the world’s biggest public lending institution – bigger even than the
the EU. But it frequently neglects environmental and social aspects in its investments,
has a strong aversion to share information with the public and its staff is too
small to monitor projects effectively.
a transparent and accountable institution – an institution that values real public
benefits and positive environmental and social impacts as highly as lending volume
and commercial viability.
and thus bound by EU policies and legislation. It provides loans to EU countries,
about 140 partner countries and to private or public companies.
of tackling climate change and supporting sustainable development. Its lending
in the important energy and transport sectors and specifically its lending outside
the EU often has clearly negative, sometimes devastating impacts on the environment
and on the well-being of affected communities.
and social policies. Time and again the EIB’s billions have thus contributed to
damaging impacts on people and their environment.
international financial institution. It takes decisions mostly solitarily without
inviting or allowing others to be involved – not even those directly affected
by its lending.
other than as a publicity gimmick. Most of the used oil is already used as biodiesel
for land vehicles, and other uses. There is nowhere like enough used oil to fuel
the road vehicles that would like to use it now.
In September KLM will launch more than 200 flights being operated on biokerosene
between Amsterdam and Paris.
according to managing director Camiel Eurlings. “In November 2009 we demonstrated
that it was technically possible to fly on biokerosene. Now, a year and a half
after our first demonstration flight on Camelina, a new phase has been entered
around the world, that of certification. Authorisation will soon be granted to
operate commercial flights on biofuel. I am especially proud to announce that
KLM will take this substantial step in September”.
to using different raw materials for the end product, as long as they meet a range
of sustainability criteria, including substantial reductions in CO2 emissions
and minimum negative impact on biodiversity and food supply. All biofuels used
by KLM also have to meet precisely the same technical specifications as traditional
kerosene and must not require any adjustments to aircraft engines or infrastructure.
launched by KLM and North Sea Group and Spring Associates in 2009. SkyNRG is actively
developing a sustainable production chain for aviation biofuels. The sustainability
of alternative kerosene depends on many factors and is assessed on a case-by-case
basis. In order to be able in future to reach the right decisions in this area,
SkyNRG is advised by an independent Sustainability Board, consisting of the Dutch
wing of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Solidaridad, and the Copernicus
Institute of the University of Utrecht. A positive recommendation from the Sustainability
Board carries a lot of weight for KLM.
that alternative fuels made from biomass are the only appropriate replacement
for fossil fuels for such sectors as the airline industry. Eurlings: “The route
to 100% sustainable energy is enormously challenging. The costs of biofuels need
to come down substantially and permanently. This can be achieved through innovation,
collaboration and the right legislation that stimulates biofuel in the airline
industry, but with an eye on honest competition. We really need to move forward
together to attain continuous access to sustainable fuel”.
has been sector leader of de Dow Jones Sustainability Index for six successive
KLM Media Relations, tel. + (31) 020 – 649 45 45
vegetable oil annually, mainly from industrial
equivalent amount of petroleum (an ideal case), almost 1% of US oil consumption
could be offset.
cost as an input to the other uses as well.
as fresh or unused cooking oil, continues to be used in animal feed.
50-90 million litres of waste cooking oil each year, while Ireland discards more
than 10,000 tonnes of waste vegetable oil annually.
according to the government’s
UK’s cars. In fact, the Energy Systems Research Unit estimates that the UK can
only produce enough
There’s very little used cooking oil to spare, because globally it’s already being
recycled into things like soap and animal feeds.
Rather more important, used cooking oil is a drop in the ocean when it comes
to supplying the West’s transport needs. According to a report from New York’s
“[Used cooking oil] has an available potential to produce almost 1.7 billion
gallons of [biodiesel] [which is] 1.1% of [America’s] petroleum imports today.”
(A litre of cooking oil does not give out a litre of biodiesel. Much of the cooking
oil used to cook french fries is eaten as part of the fries and much of the waste
cooking oil left over is unusable solids.)
Because of the shortage of used cooking oils for conversion to biodiesel, there
is a global race to produce vegetable oils to meet the demand. This demand has
driven up food prices, making it much harder for poor people to feed their families.
Also, forests are being cleared to grow crops like palm oil for biodiesel, meaning
that some biofuels are actually contributing to global warming by removing forests
that would have absorbed C02.
recommend scrapping biofuel subsidies
and flies in the face of recommendations from major international institutions,
Friends of the Earth Europe said today on the opening day of the Paris air show,
expected to announce plans to use 2 million tonnes of bio-kerosene per year by
2020.  This could require up to 3.5 million hectares, an area the size of
Belgium, to grow, with serious environmental implications. KLM and Virgin Atlantic
have already carried out test flights with various blends of biofuel, and Lufthansa
launches its first commercial flight this year. 
aviation industry with a convenient blind alley, facilitating the industry’s expansion
plans, avoiding pressure to reduce fuel use and diverting political attention
from the real need to cut air travel in order to reduce climate change. 
European aviation industry is simply flying in the face of the facts. Biofuels
exacerbate poverty and hunger, drive land-grabbing and
deforestation, push up food prices, and threaten to make climate change worse,
not better. These new biofuel targets offer a convenient smokescreen for aviation
industry expansion, but not the genuine emission reductions needed.”
on rising food costs, including recommendations by the World Bank, WTO, UN, OECD
and others to scrap biofuel subsidies and
mandates because of their impact on world poverty and food prices. 
Controversial crops to be included in the aviation biofuel mix include palm oil
– the production of which is linked with tropical deforestation, irreparable biodiversity
loss, and human rights abuses – and jatropha, promoted as a miracle crop, but
in reality instrumental in driving land-grabs in India and Africa. 
and European Biofuels producers are expected to launch the “European Advanced
Biofuels Flightpath”. Originally planned for the
Paris Air show in Le Bourget at the Airbus Press Chalet on 22nd June at 14.30,
this has subsequently been postponed until further notice.
(Future Aircraft Research) which is looking at biofuels, other alternative fuels
and aircraft concepts. Of this €2.5 million will go to Lufthansa’s “burnFAIR”
project in which it plans to trial biofuel for six months in one engine of an
aircraft flying the short Hamburg to Frankfurt route.
released today and is available for download here:
paper “Price Volatility in Food and Agricultural Markets: Policy Responses”, published
in May 2011, contains the following “Recommendation 6: G20 governments remove
provisions of current national policies that subsidize (or mandate) biofuels production
or consumption”. The paper is available for download here
As reported in the Financial Times 9 June 2011 “Report urges end to G20 biofuel
on the immediate future. Boeing will be flying one of its new 747-8 Freighter
aircraft to the Paris Air Show powered by biofuel. With all the research surrounding
bio fuels in commercial aviation Boeing said its 747-8 will fly on a blend of
15 percent camelina-based biofuel mixed with 85 percent traditional kerosene fuel.
This blend of fuel will not only get the plane from point A to point B, the plane
will leave less of a carbon footprint.
Boeing notes that the “fuel’s camelina biomix that this plant source was grown
in Montana and processed by Honeywell’s UOP.” Boeing did not have to make any
changes to the aircraft engines. The aircraft manufacturer reportedly did not
have to make any changes to the airplane, its engines or operating procedures
prior to departure to accommodate biofuel use, and is following what it describes
as normal flight parameters approved in advance by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration
air show debut in a doubly historic fashion, flying the airplane across the Atlantic
Ocean to the Paris Air Show using a renewable aviation jet fuel – the world’s
first transatlantic crossing of a commercial jetliner using biologically derived
Rossby will fly the airplane with each of the 747-8 Freighter’s four GE GEnx-2B
engines powered by a blend of 15 percent camelina-based biofuel mixed with 85
percent traditional kerosene fuel (Jet-A).
Paris local time (15:00 GMT) after a 4,989-mile (8,029 km, 4,335 nautical mile)
and improve efficiency in all phases of our industry,” said 747-8 Vice President
and General Manager Elizabeth Lund.
in fuel efficiency, lower carbon emissions and less noise.”
processed by Honeywell’s UOP.
procedures prior to departure to accommodate biofuel use.
U.S. Federal Aviation Administration.
headquarters at Luxembourg for a two-day visit.
service this summer.
the lowest operating costs and best economics of any freighter airplane while
providing enhanced environmental performance.
in North America, recently approved an amendment to the current specification
to include fuels from bio-based sources.
use of the new fuels without special approval.
of fuel sources being considered.
during the growth phase, and are a key element of aviation’s strategy for achieving
carbon-neutral growth beyond 2020.
five years on sustainable aviation biofuel development including commercial and
military flight test programs, laboratory and ground-based jet engine performance
testing to ensure compliance with stringent aviation fuel performance and safety
sources identified during a comprehensive regional analysis conducted by Boeing
and others in the Northwestern U.S. as part of the Sustainable Aviation Fuels
Northwest project (
United Arab Emirates and China to identify potential fuel sources that don’t compete
with food or fresh water resources or contribute to deforestation.
for blending with Jet-A, reducing the industry’s dependency on fossil fuels
Honeywell demo flight in Gulfstream G450 using one engine using 50% biofuel from camelina crosses Atlantic
Hoping to spark international attention and support for the fledgling concept
of aviation biofuels, Honeywell International Inc. flew a business jet across
the Atlantic on Saturday using a blend of of its vegetable-based “Green Jet Fuel”
and traditional petroleum-based fuel and landed safely at Le Bourget Airport outside
biofuel, and the first major test flight of such fuel by a business jet. Following
much of the path of the historic trans-Atlantic flight of aviation pioneer Charles
Lindbergh, Honeywell said one of the Gulfstream G450’s jet engines was powered
by a blend that included 50% biofuel produced from camelina, a crop that doesn’t
compete with other crops used for use as a food.
products, the roughly seven-hour flight saved “approximately 5.5 metric tons of
net carbon dioxide emissions compared to the same flight powered by petroleum-based
the flight was intended to showcase the broad topic of advances in biofuel technology,
as well as Honeywell’s previously reported efforts to license the technology so
its Green Fuel blend could begin to be produced by major refiners. The topic also
has garnered attention because ASTM International, the organization that sets
technical standards, recently approved the use of renewable fuel in jet engines,
opening the door for commercialization of biofuels championed by Honeywell and
accomplishment demonstrates “we are one step closer to commercial use that will
help the aviation community reduce its carbon footprint and dependence on crude,”
Jim Rekoske, a senior Honeywell biofuel official, said in announcement after the
plane landed. Environmental officials, airline executives and the head of the
Federal Aviation Administration have made similar pronouncements lately, and a
growing number of carriers around the globe have experimented with some type of
officials, because the plane’s manufacturer participated in the test and business-jet
operators typically are the first to embrace cutting-edge technologies and applications.
all specifications for flight, without requiring any modifications to aircraft
“inedible sources such as camelina, jatropha and algae,” intended for use
so far, according to Honeywell, Green Jet Fuel met all expectations. The company
developed the process to produce the biofuel in 2007, under a Pentagon research
contract, and since then military brass have stressed the advantages of such alternative
freighter also is scheduled to make history at the Paris Air Show on Sunday, after
crossing the Atlantic using a different blend of Honeywell’s biofuel. As the first
commercial jet to accomplish that feat, Boeing said each of the plane’s four engines
is slated to burn a mixture of 15% green jet fuel and 85% traditional kerosene.
a number of potential biofuel sources identified by Boeing and others. The Chicago
aerospace giant is participating in biofuel studies from Australia and New Zealand
to China, the Middle East and Mexico.
outside Paris, is expected to highlight other biofuel initiatives, including some
supported by commercial plane makers and various airlines.
Paris air show in first long-distance test of aviation biofuels
A corporate jet is scheduled to make the first ever non-stop trans-ocean flight
powered by biofuels on Friday night when it leaves Morristown, New Jersey, bound
airport, ferrying two American executives from the fuel’s suppliers, Honeywell.
He will land at Paris-Le Bourget airport mid-morning on Saturday.
the plane will perform exactly as it should,” said Weight, a Honeywell employee.
to trump Weight in distance and aircraft size when they leave for Paris from Everett,
Washington, in a biofuel-powered Boeing 747-8 cargo plane, also using fuel from
promote biofuels as technically ready to replace conventional petroleum jet fuels
– typically kerosene – and help the airline industry reduce its massive carbon
is it is not five or six years off,” said Jim Rekoske, vice president and general
manager of Honeywell’s fuel subsidiary, Honeywell UOP. Rekoske will be on Friday’s
flight, as will Carl Esposito,vice president of Honeywell Aerospace.
has helped cultivate in Montana and process for the U.S. military. Friday’s flight
will use a 50/50 mix of biofuel and conventional fuel, while Sunday’s trip from
Washington will be 15% biofuel.
jet fuels contain aromatics that help tighten plastic seals in jet engines. Biofuels
lack aromatics, but a 50/50 blend includes enough to fly safely.
tentative approval to jet biofuels and said it could issue final approval by 1
approval from ASTM before it starts daily flights between Hamburg and Frankfurt
using biofuel from Finland’s Neste Oil.
memorandum of understanding with 14 airlines to supply biofuel.
impact and their higher price than conventional fuel. Rekoske thinks price can
decline to a competitive level by 2013.
the Monitoring and Reporting Regulation”
emissions from biomass used in sectors covered by the ETS does not accurately
reflect actual emissions from biomass and is, moreover, contrary to the principle
underlying the ETS that each operator should be responsible for his own emissions.
Reporting Regulation by 31 December 2011.
as an opportunity to correct the current treatment of biomass under the ETS by
eliminating the zero-emissions factor for biomass co-fired with other fuels and
provides specific recommendations for how this might be accomplished.
The briefing first provides an overview of the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC
and the ETS Directive 2003/87/EC, including how the Renewable Energy Directive
defines the “sustainability” of “biomass” and the deficiencies of its sustainability
provisions of the draft Monitoring and Reporting Regulation that the Commission
is in the course of finalising.
a Monitoring and Reporting Regulation given to the Commission by the ETS Directive,
and the possibilities it offers to realign—at least in part—the treatment of biomass
with its real GHG performance.
of the Directive’s mandate by deleting the zero-emission factor for biomass.
at least insofar as operators using biomass as part of a broader fuel mix are
be required to amend the ETS Directive. This is outside of the remit of the mandate
for the Monitoring and Reporting Regulation. The briefing goes on to recommend
that, unless and until the ETS Directive is amended to include biomass-only installations
within the ETS, ‘biomass’, for the purposes of the ETS, should be defined to include
any sustainability criteria adopted for biofuels, bioliquids, biogas and/or solid
biomass under the remit of the Renewable Energy Directive.
on the draft Monitoring and Reporting Regulation that closed on 10 June 2011.
It can also be accessed at
Some of the people who reviewed preliminary drafts of the briefing raised questions
about how our recommendations should be understood in light of the accounting
rules for biomass under the Kyoto Protocol. ClientEarth intends to follow up
with a second briefing outlining the relevant reporting frameworks and addressing
the term ‘biomass’ is used to refer to any non-fossilised biodegradable material
organic origin, regardless of its state (solid, liquid or gaseous) and of the
which it is used (transport, heating, electricity generation, etc.). In other
the ETS ‘biomass’ includes also biofuels and bioliquids.
specified reductions of GHG emissions as compared to fossil fuels. In other words,
“sustainability” under the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC does not equate
produce positive GHG emissions even when they are sustainable.
Moreover, it is important to stress that the sustainability criteria laid down
Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC overlook important climatic impacts such
carbon debt issue and GHG emissions from indirect land-use changes, which do
appear in the calculation methodologies. In addition, sustainability criteria
and bioliquids fail to take into consideration the cumulative pressure of a dramatic
increase in demand for limited global forest and arable land resources.
The carbon debt of biomass
The idea that bioenergy is carbon neutral because emissions from energy
generation are re-absorbed through biomass re-growth is in fact no more than
mistaken preconception. Scientific analysis does not support the idea of a neat
in which the carbon emitted through burning biomass for energy is re-absorbed
through re-growth―at least not within our lifetime’s scale. Between the moment
carbon is emitted from the combustion of the bioenergy carrier and the moment
re-captured by growing vegetation, the bioenergy system has positive carbon
emissions. Therefore, at least initially, increased reliance on bioenergy amounts
incurring a “carbon debt” with the atmosphere, which will be repaid over time
new biomass grows to replace that which was burned. The significance of the
carbon debt issue on the overall climatic performance of bioenergy depends on
length of the delay between emission and re-absorption. Available science estimates
that shifting to bioenergy produces climatic benefits on a timescale ranging
immediately (e.g., in the case of raw material extracted from new forests grown
land that was previously cropland) to hundreds of years (e.g., when raw material
comes from additional thinnings of natural forests or plantations).
Indirect land-use change
The current methodology for calculating the life-cycle emissions of biofuels
bioliquids does not take into account the effects of indirect land-use change
ILUC occurs when, for example, bioenergy feedstock production displaces
agricultural land and, in turn, forests are converted to agricultural production
order to replace the agricultural lands converted to bioenergy crops. Depending
of bioenergy—in some cases resulting in emissions that are worse than fossil
When the influence of the carbon debt as well as ILUC concerns are taken into
account, serious doubts arise about the overall GHG performance of bioenergy
it becomes apparent that updated, more encompassing criteria are needed in order
to ensure that only sustainable bioenergy is supported or even allowed23.
Broader environmental impacts of increasing demands on limited forest
and land resources
Moreover, increased pressure on forests and agricultural lands deriving from
increased reliance on biomass threatens to result in deforestation, forest
degradation and biodiversity loss as well as rising food prices which may affect
livelihoods of forest-dependent populations and the world’s poor. Current
regulations in the energy as well as forest sectors at both the European and
Member State levels are inadequate to address these concerns, as a recent report
on the sustainability of woody biomass shows.
monitoring and reporting purposes, emissions from bioenergy do not count towards
obligation to surrender allowances. That is, bioenergy is treated as if it did
any emissions and bioenergy users are de facto subsidised through an exemption
the obligation to surrender allowances. Moreover, because bioenergy emissions
constitute reportable emissions giving rise to an obligation to surrender allowances,
applicable rules allow less accurate monitoring and reporting of bioenergy emissions.
As a result, policy-makers as well as the public are not able to access data
on the actual
level of emissions from bioenergy in the Union.
their planes with a blend of traditional fuel and biofuel from inedible plants,
chips, may comprise as much as 50 percent of the total fuel burned to power passenger
flights, ATA spokesman
companies involved in the production of aviation biofuels,” said Harry Boyle,
an analyst at Bloomberg New Energy Finance in London. “The biotech-biofuels business
aviation fuel market are
for aviation and the result of tremendous collaboration across the entire industry,”
Boeing Vice President of Environment and Aviation Policy Billy Glover told Bloomberg
News in an e-mail.
for achieving carbon-neutral growth beyond 2020 and creating a sustainable future
for aviation and the global community it serves,” Glover said.
ASTM International, and it may allow Airbus SAS and
one engine powered 50 percent by biofuel from jatropha, camelina and animal waste.
will then be able to begin using bio-derived fuel a week or so thereafter, she
hydrotreated renewable jet fuel every day, four times a day, from Hamburg to
the total by 2020. Airbus estimates airlines may consume 30 percent of their fuel
from plant-derived sources by 2030.
them to cap emissions or buy permits for the excess beginning next year. Aviation
accounts for about 2 percent of global carbon-dioxide emissions.
said at a 50 percent blend level it doesn’t expect to see any impact on engines
passenger planes, are planning to set up biofuel production chains across the
world. Airbus is working on a supply hub in
joint ventures and partnerships with growers, transporters and refiners. Boeing
is negotiating with companies across the supply chain in
fuel from corn, sugar cane or soy.
Honeywell, Indian Oil
establish a pilot biofuel production plant in India next year, James Rekoske,
vice president of renewable energy at Honeywell’s UOP, said. It would be Honeywell’s
first pilot facility in
and pongamia to make renewable jet fuel.
done,” Rekoske said. It’s more expensive to produce diesel from biomass than from
crude oil, he said, estimating the difference at less than $2 a barrel.
in the robust Chinese aviation market.
“7.6 million barrels per day in 2012, up from about 6.8 million barrels per day
in 2007″. That translates into 116 billion gallons of jet fuel, globally, by 2012.
With an approval of Bio-SPK, the biofuels industry will have a new path to supply
up to 58 billion gallons of fuel to the sector.
which is equivalent to roughly 1.5 to 1.7 billion barrels of kerosene annually
(about 70 billion gallons).
2015, 25% by 2025, and 30% by 2030.
collectively use 1.5 million barrels of jet fuel per day. link In 2008, the U.S. Department of Defense used about 119 million barrels of
oil for fuel (not all for planes).
the industry target would represent a shift to 90% sustainable biofuels in 2050,
estimates the report’s researchers. [ 13.6 million barrels per day works out at 4.9 billion barrels per year. This
is well over 6 times current global biofuels production. AirportWatch calculation.
2020, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10% over the forecast period
2015 – 2020. (That’s about half of current Saudi oil production).
demand of 4.9 billion barrels biofuel by 2050)
path to 58 bilion gallon/year aviation biofuels market comes clearer, closer
municipal waste and other cellulosic feedstocks in aviation fuels. Final approval
is expected no earlier than July 1st, according to ASTM, of the new BIO SPK fuel
standard, which will limit such fuels to 50 percent by weight.
begin a six-month commercial trial of a 50 percent biofuel blend, on four flights
per day operating between Frankfurt and London.
type of regulatory breakthrough will be technology companies involved in the production
of aviation biofuels. The biotech-biofuels business models of Amyris Inc., Codexis
Inc., Gevo Inc. and Solazyme Inc. are all making claims to these types of new
markets.” Amyris and Gevo are not producing Bio-SPK fuels and are not directly
impacted by the announcement – although Solazyme will receive a potential direct
impact for its Bio-SPK-based Solajet fuel, which it is producing in large test
quantities for the US Navy among other customers..
sidelines of the Advanced Biofuels Leadership Conference this past April, aviation
experts predicted a number of new offtake agreements between producers and airlines,
following approval of the standard.
oilseeds such as jatropha or camelina, oil recovered from organisms such as microalgae
or cyanobacteria, or oil produced from animal wastes in the rendering process.
Sapphire Energy, Solazyme, Terasol and Sustainable Oils. In the process, excess oxygen content is removed from the oil feedstocks
to produce bio-based synthetic paraffinic kerosene, which is used as jet fuel
under one of a variety of fuel specs, including Jet A, JP-4, JP-5, JP-7 or JP-8.
spec would make it possible for almost any producer of virgin or used oils, such
as waste cooking oil, to potentially enter into what is expected to be a fast-growing market for renewable jet fuels.
with liquid oxygen to power the first stage of a Saturn V launch vehicle. Five
F-1 rocket engines can generate up to 217 million horsepower.
high density fuels, such as diesel, and is used as an additive to diesel, for
example, to halt gelling at low temperatures.
which is also downloadable from the Digest’s BIZ database of useful public documents
relating to biofuels.
fuels produced using the Fischer-Tropsch process. Rentech is among the leading
companies producing this fuel, which is already approved for use and was the subject
of a 13-airline offtake agreement at LAX, announced last year. Rentech is also
working with UOP for unionfining, unicracking and dewaxing technologies.
jet fuels directly from fermentation, or from catalytic conversion processes.
Companies pursuing this track include Cobalt Technologies, Gevo, Amyris, Joule
Unlimited, and Virent. The latest guidance from Amyris suggests that they expect
to see approval and commercial-scale production of those fuels by mid-decade.
in the robust Chinese aviation market.
“7.6 million barrels per day in 2012, up from about 6.8 million barrels per day
in 2007″. That translates into 116 billion gallons of jet fuel, globally, by 2012.
With an approval of Bio-SPK, the biofuels industry will have a new path to supply
up to 58 billion gallons of fuel to the sector.
by airlines operating into, out of, or within Europe. Commencing in January 2012,
the airline industry is scheduled to enter into the EU Emissions Trading Scheme,
which will cap carbon emission levels, and is expected to cost airlines up to
$19 billion in 2012 alone,
which is equivalent to roughly 1.5 to 1.7 billion barrels of kerosene annually
(about 70 billion gallons).
2015, 25% by 2025, and 30% by 2030. This represents a market value of US $2 billion, $56 billion, and $68 billion
in delivered fuel respectively, assuming current kerosene prices.
payments. In addition, airlines cite corporate sustainability programs as well
as supply chain diversification among reasons that they are taking such a strong
interest in Bio-SPK. Unlike, for example the passenger car market, which has carbon-mitigation
options such as hybrids and electric vehicles, biofuels are generally agreed as
the primary tool for aviation emissions reduction over the next 30 years, in conjunction
with increases in fuel efficiency.
can be gleaned from the Digest’s Advanced Biofuels Project Database, which was
most recently updated last month, and can be downloaded for free, via the Digest’s
Bioenergy Information Zone (BIZ) collection of reports and data on biofuels development.
(ASTM), is a globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of international
voluntary consensus standards. Today, some 12,000 ASTM standards are used around
the world to improve product quality, enhance safety, facilitate market access
and trade, and build consumer confidence
The Defense Department Is a Significant Driver of New Technology
Executive VP, Industrial Environmental Section, BIO
require reliable fuel supplies and secure supply lines. The military is as much
at the mercy of high oil and gasoline prices as the average consumer. And, oil
often comes from regions of the world that are not U.S. military allies. Energy
independence is therefore a national security issue.
nation’s energy on an annual basis, making the military a small but significant
consumer of fuel. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Defense used about 119 million
barrels of oil for fuel.
its use of renewable energy – acquiring 50 percent of supplies from renewable
sources that meet U.S. greenhouse gas emission initiatives by 2020. [All probably more for energy security reasons than any desire to reduce climate
and access to fuel supplies in friendly countries around the world as important
“force multipliers.” They increase the military’s ability to operate where needed
while limiting the number of combat forces needed to protect supply lines..
plans to deploy a Great Green Fleet powered by renewable and low-carbon energy
by 2016 in a speech this month at BIO’s World Congress on Industrial Biotechnology
in Toronto. According to Tindal, “We want to be able to pull into different ports
around the globe and be able to refuel on biofuels.” In other words, the Navy
does not want to sail its Great Green Fleet with a long convoy of tankers providing
the fuel, as this would recreate the need to protect a long supply line – a disadvantage
similar to the current reliance on oil.
biorefineries can be established in strategic locations, such as Hawaii or other
friendly countries, making use of local feedstocks to produce sustainable biofuels
for the military.
and certify that biofuels meet exacting requirements for performance and cost.
For instance, Solazyme – a California algae oil producer –delivered to the Navy
20,000 gallons of jet and diesel from algae, the largest amount of advanced biofuel
ever produced. And Sustainable Oils – a renewable fuel producer in Montana – supplied
camelina-based bio-jet fuel for a 2010 test flight at supersonic speeds of the
U.S. Navy’s F/A-18 “Green Hornet” aircraft.
his speech, the military can help biotech and algae biofuel companies scale up
their technologies and drive prices down by acting as an early adopter. The U.S.
military exercises sufficient purchasing power to drive development of new fuels
in sufficient quantities at the right price. The private commercial airline industry and the military collectively use 1.5
million barrels of jet fuel per day.
leader in scaling up commercial production of sustainable biofuels, such as algae.
BIO supports legislation allowing the Department of Defense to engage in long-term
contracts for purchasing biofuels. These contracts would provide significant market
stability for small companies trying to commercialize new technologies and would
help them to attract private investment to build the small biorefineries in strategic
locations around the world that the military needs.
that the aviation industry intends to use)
‘complete nonsense’ and EU-wide targets to increase their use should be scrapped
says letter to transport minister
is being driven by European targets for more transport fuel to come from biofuels,
say a group of prominent UK scientists.
The EU has a target for 10 per cent of total transport fuel to be derived from
renewable sources by 2020. Observers estimate the vast majority of these targets
will be met by biofuels, mainly sourced from food crops, such as oil seeds, palm
oil, sugar cane, beet and wheat.
The UK is currently aiming to reach 5 per cent of fuel from renewable sources
by 2013 and admits that 90 per cent or more of the increase to 10 per cent by
2020 will be met by crop-based biofuels.
The biofuels target was originally designed to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions
but in a letter sent to the transport minister Philip Hammond, and seen by the
Ecologist, 19 prominent scientists from across the UK say crop-based biofuels will actually ‘substantially increase
According to the scientists, in a rush to promote biofues both the UK and EU
had failed to take account of two factors – the high-use of nitrogen fertilisers
and land-use change brought about by the increasing demand for land to grow biofuel
crops instead of food.
‘The additional demand for grains, oilseeds and sugars brought about by increased
biofuel production will indirectly bring about the conversion of land currently
under forest or other natural ecosystem into agricultural land, with the concomitant
release into the atmosphere of carbon stored in trees and soil,’ says the letter.
Professor Keith Smith, of University of Edinburgh, one of the letter’s co-authors, says the release of carbon dioxide would be
‘huge’ compared to the savings from the crops taking in CO2 from the atmosphere
to grow. He says another factor, emissions related to fertiliser-use, was also
‘There has been a naivety that biofuels are carbon neutral but when we count
the fossil fuel energy going into biofuels from fertiliser use and then also the
nitrous oxide emissions from using nitrogen fertilisers, the emissions are even
higher,’ says Professor Smith.
Both the UK and EU have been under heavy pressure from environmentalists ever
since they announced the targets for biofuels. In April a
they contributed to higher greenhouse gas emissions, food price rises and deforestation.
open letter the scientists urge the UK to ‘provide leadership’ by only accepting
biofuels that are proven to reduce emissions and do not contribute to food insecurity
or conflicts over land.
Action Aid, which claims the biofuels targets will lead to
from real waste rather than crops and promoting electric cars as alternatives
to meeting the EU renewable transport targets.