Vortex damage to house roofs from over-flying planes
There have been a considerable number of incidents where houses have been damaged
by vortices, caused by planes flying overhead.
The reason is well understood. Planes cause turbulence in the air they fly through,
and these can continue for some time, and descend to the ground, especially if
there is little wind to break them up.
The effect is often that tiles or slates are sucked off roofs, and can then cause
injury as they fall to the ground. The house holder is left with a damaged roof
in need or urgent repair.
The airports see themselves as not being liable for the damage, and say it is
up to the airlines to provide compensation.
However, at a number of airports, there is a scheme through which householders
whose roofs are damaged can obtain prompt compensation.
Details of the Manchester Vortex Protection Scheme.
How the damage is caused:
|On a clear day it is possible to see the path of an aircraft high in the sky, travelling to some far off destination. The path is clearly marked by a vapour trail that has a defined width, and remains in the sky for a long period after the aircraft has passed. The vapour trail is technically known as an aircraft wake vortices. At many hundreds of miles per hour, the strength of the vortices generated by the wings and fuselage cutting through the air, and added too by the thrust from the jet engines, are enormous.||
|The disturbance generates spiralling cones of air (the vortices), much like a tornado. The force of the vortices takes a long time to dissipate as there is little in the upper atmosphere to slow it down.|
|Closer to the ground large aircraft travel much slower, and the atmosphere is much thicker, so the vortices that are generated are less powerful and dissipates quicker. The most critical period is when a large aircraft is coming into land, when it is common for the aircraft wake vortex to reach the ground. The force of the vortex can suck tiles or slates off the roofs close to the flight path.|
|The main risk factors|
|The risks of being affected by an aircraft wake vortices can be assessed by looking at various know factors|
|Unlike hurricane force winds, which affect the perimeters of a roof (especially the ridge and verge), aircraft wake vortices damage occurs in the centre of a roof slope, as the edges of the roof break up the vortices rather than help it. The average vortex is approx. 500mm wide, will travel at about 5 Knots, and last for approx. 3 minutes in clear air. Once it comes into contact with a roof, the vortices can exert their total force of up to -1200N/m² on just one or two slates or tiles for a fraction of a second, before they break up and loses their energy. If the tiles or slates are not fixed securely, the sucking and twisting action of the vortices can lift them out of place.|
|To resist the force of the vortices it is essential that the tiles and slates can not lift at the tail of the tile or slate, and can not rotate. This can be achieved with tiles by being head nailed to the batten and tail clipped with a rigid clip. The smaller the tiles the more fixing can be installed per square metre of roof. Plain tiles should be fixed with either ring shank nails with a thick strong nail head or screwed. For double lap slate, centre nailing with ring shank nails should be adequate.Roofs clad with metal sheeting or built up systems do not appear to be vulnerable to aircraft wake vortices damage as the small footprint of a vortex relative to the large surface area of the panel will allow the load to spread to a greater number of fixings.|
|Program of repairs|
|The existing roofs that are under the flight path into major UK airports, starting with London Heathrow, are likely to be subject to a planned or programmed roof replacement scheme. However for all new buildings under a flight path it is the responsibility of the designer/ specifier to ensure the correct fixing specification is used to ensure no roof damage is caused by the effect aircraft wake vortices. In most instances the airport authority will be able to advise if the size of aircraft using the airport is an issue, and the exact line of the flight paths. With this information, the assistance of the roof tile or slate manufacturer should next be sought to determine the correct fixing specification for the roof.|
|To assist designers and engineers, the Building Research Establishment has produced a Digest number 467 entitled “Slate & Tiled Roofs: Avoiding Damage from Aircraft Wake Vortices”, giving all the information needed, including sample calculations.|
|The number of pitched roofs in the UK that may be affected by aircraft wake vortices is very small, but the affect an aircraft wake vortex can have on a pitched roof can be very disruptive. The development of some brown field sites under the flight path into airports, and the extension of existing airports to take more air traffic will increase the overall number of roofs that could be affected. It is therefore important for building designers and specifiers, who intend to build near an airport to understand and be aware of the potential problems that aircraft wake vortices can have and where to get the information needed to ensure it does not become a problem for their project.|
Some incidents of roof damage – from the news:
28 incidents of roof damage in Florsheim, near Frankfurt between opening of new 4th runway in October 2011 and April 2016. read more …..
Damage to roof and falling tiles, Birmingham 12.10.2014 read more …..
Damage to roof in Florsheim, Germany 3.4.2013 read more …..
Damage to house in Old Windsor 22.3.2013 read more …..
Belfast residents call for independent inquiry into yet another roof tiles incident 6.6.2010 read more …..
Damage at George Best Belfast City airport 13.9.2009 read more …..
Damage at Birmingham airport over several years read more …..
Damage in Germany 13.11.2009 read more …..
Damage in Thailand 6.10.2006 read more …..
Press release from GACC (Gatwick Area Conservation Campaign)
6 June 2011
New Vortex Strike Policy
GACC is glad to announce agreement on a new Vortex Strike Policy at the airport.
When Gatwick Airport sought planning permission for scheduled A380 services, GACC was concerned that such large aircraft create powerful vortex wakes that might cause damage to properties in the vicinity. We suggested the airport should offer to compensate owners of properties damaged in this way. The airport responded, in October 2010, with a scheme that was inferior to that at Heathrow, covered only domestic properties and was limited to £10k.
We are now pleased that, as a result of pressure from GACC, Gatwick Airport Ltd have agreed a much improved scheme that covers domestic properties (including homes above commercial properties), schools, churches and hospitals. Only commercial properties are excluded, on the basis that they would normally have adequate insurance protection.
Anybody who thinks they have suffered vortex damage to their roof should call Gatwick Airport Ltd on 0800 393 070 or email firstname.lastname@example.org .
The full policy is available on the Gatwick web site at
The original Vortex Damage Policy submitted as part of the planning application is on the Crawley Borough Council Web site at :- http://www.crawley.gov.uk/stellent/groups/public/documents/plappother/int197201.pdf